## HN, tagged

Polybolos - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia :: 457 13 polybolos edit trigger string
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dc:description """  Polybolos was an ancient Greek repeating ballista reputedly invented by Dionysius of Alexandria, a 3rd-century BC Greek engineer at the Rhodes arsenal, [ 1 ] [ 2 ] and used in antiquity . Philo of Byzantium encountered and described the polybolos, a catapult that like a modern machine gun could fire again and again without a need to
reload. [ 3 ] Philo left a detailed description of the gears that powered its chain drive , the oldest known application of such a mechanism, [ 1 ] and that placed bolt after bolt into its firing slot.   Mechanism [ edit ]      Arsenal of ancient mechanical artillery in the Saalburg , Germany; left: polybolos reconstruction by the German engineer Erwin Schramm (1856-1935)   The polybolos would have differed from an ordinary ballista in that it had a wooden magazine over the mensa (the cradle that holds the bolt prior to firing) capable of holding several dozen bolts. The mechanism is unique in that it is driven by a flat-link chain connected to a windlass ; the flat-link chain is an invention more often attributed to Leonardo da Vinci .  When loading a new bolt, the windlass is rotated counter-clockwise with the trigger claw raised; this drives the mensa forward towards the bow string, where a metal lug pushes the trigger under the trigger claw, which is closed over the string.  Once the string is locked into the trigger mechanism, the windlass is then rotated clockwise, drawing the mensa back, drawing the bow string with it.  A round wooden pole in the bottom of the magazine is rotated down toward the mensa as it is drawn to the back of the polybolos, dropping a single bolt into the tray, ready to be fired. As the mensa is twisted farther back, it meets another lug like the one that locked the string into position. This one pushes the trigger and automatically fires the polybolos, and the process is repeated. The repetition provides the weapon's name, in Greek "πολυβόλος", "throwing many missiles", [ 4 ] from "πολύς" ( polys ), "multiple, many" [ 5 ] and -βόλος - -bolos "thrower", in turn from "βάλλω" ( ballo ), "to throw, to hurl", [ 6 ] literally a
repeating weapon.   Replicas [ edit ]   In 2010 a reconstruction was built by the crew of MythBusters , who concluded that it was a possible weapon. However, the machine MythBusters built was prone to breakdowns. [ 7 ]    See also [ edit ]    References [ edit ]      ^ a  b  Werner Soedel, Vernard Foley (March 1979). "Ancient Catapults" . Scientific American  240 (3): 124-125.     ^  Alan Wilkins (2003). Roman Artillery . Osprey Publishing. p. 8. ISBN  978-0-7478-0575-5 .     ^  Philo of Byzantium, "Belopoeica", 73.34    ^  πολυβόλος , Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon , on Perseus Digital Library    ^  πολύς , Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon , on Perseus Digital Library    ^  βάλλω , Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon , on Perseus Digital Library    ^  Episode 152: Arrow Machine Gun . mythbustersresults.com, November 3, 2010.      External links [ edit ]    Media related to Polybolos at Wikimedia Commons   """@en ;
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Product Development in an Unruly Mob: Alex Wilson and Benji Webe :: 1233 12 mob programming unruly wilson
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ns1:description "At the fifth 'Agile on the Beach' conference, held in Cornwall, UK, InfoQ sat down with Alex Wilson and Benji Weber from Unruly. Wilson and Weber presented a session at the conference entitled 'Product Development in an Unruly Mob', and discussed how mob programming has helped Unruly get the best from the software delivery team. " ;
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dc:description " At the fifth ‘ Agile on the Beach ’ conference, held in Cornwall, UK, InfoQ sat down with Alex Wilson and Benji Weber from Unruly. Wilson and Weber presented 'Product Development in an Unruly Mob', and discussed how mob programming has helped get the best from the Unruly software delivery team.   InfoQ: Hi Alex and Benji, and thanks for joining us today! The company you both work for, Unruly, has quite a reputation within the software development industry for fully embracing an agile approach to your work. Could you explain a little about what you do, and why you believe the company works this way?    Wilson and Weber: Unruly is the ad tech company that gets videos watched, tracked and shared across the Open Web.  Unruly has always embraced Extreme Programming (XP) principles. In the Development team we have practised pair programming, continuous deployment and test-driven development from day one. Perhaps even more unusually, Unruly embraces the core XP principles of rapid feedback and embracing change throughout the whole organisation (even outside of product development).    InfoQ: Here at the 'Agile on the Beach' conference you both talked about mob programming. Could you explain a little more about how this works, and what you see the benefits being?    Wilson and Weber: Mob Programming is “All the brilliant people working at the same time, in the same space, on the same thing, at the same computer.” (Woody Zuill)  . We think of it as the next level up from pair programming (which we were already doing).  Woody Zuill credits Llewellyn Falco with the inspiration for Mob Programming. He believes, as do we, that it’s not about getting the most from the team but getting the best from the team.  At Unruly, we’ve been regularly mob programming in groups of between 3 and 6 people over the last year. We work at a regular workstation with a large desk and plenty of space for everyone to sit or stand around. We use a 50” TV so everyone can see the code, and have a second monitor for the driver       Wilson and Weber: Through the mob we learn together and bond over our shared experiences - in our Agile on the Beach session we covered Patrick Lencioni’s book “Five Dysfunctions of a Team”, and Mob Programming both helped tackle existing dysfunctions within our team, and exacerbate any latent issues we hadn’t noticed (so we could tackle those too!).  Mob programming helps us be a more effective team. We are all involved in building every feature that we mob on, so the design is better and we’re able to support it more effectively. We’re also able to complete tasks quicker as interruptions are less disruptive to a mob than a pair.    InfoQ: Do you believe that there are prerequisites (technical, process or social), before mob programming should be considered a viable approach within a team?    Wilson and Weber: This is a question we get a lot - certainly this stems from the typical question posed to XP practitioners “What if people don’t want to pair?”. It’s been theorised that mob programming is easier than pairing because it’s less intimate than 1-to-1 pairing, which can be intimidating, especially for new joiners.  Our highly collaborative practices are the first thing we mention in our job descriptions, so we’ve already selected for people who are happy with this kind of highly collaborative working environment. I doubt you’d persuade everyone to try mob programming. However, we do have a range of personality types, you certainly don’t all need to be extroverts.  As for technical practices - it’s hard to effectively work in a group if the feedback loops in your development process are slow. If your test suite takes more than a few mins to run, or your code takes a long time to compile you might have a group of bored people looking at their phones for half the day. However, mob programming can also help you to improve your technical practices. For instance, mobbing gives you implicit collective ownership and continuous integration - because you’re all writing the code together.  The most important thing by far is not to enforce a particular way of working, but to provide an environment which is both safe and enabling, and allow the team to evolve on its own - Woody often quotes: “The objective is not to create art, it’s to create an environment where art is inevitable” .  With such an environment, all members of the team should feel like they can contribute to the mob without fear, shame, or that they won’t have a fair say in the direction they are going. This is why we felt secure when we experimented and then adopted mob programming, and it’s an aspect of Unruly’s culture that we try hard to nurture.    InfoQ: I know Woody Zuill, a strong proponent of mob programming and the 'no estimates' movement, has been quite influential to you both - has he helped you explore better ways of working?    Wilson and Weber: We were originally inspired to try out mob programming on a regular basis after hearing Woody Zuill talk, after which we decided to give it a go. We have since experimented to find an approach that works for us.  In fact, we were recently honoured to have Woody visit us and join in some of our mob programming sessions.  We’ve not been persuaded to give up estimates yet. We do not have traditional project teams at Unruly. Rather we have product development teams that are responsible for looking for new value they can add to the products they own, in various areas. We find that understanding the cost of the next experiment that we could run in each of these areas is quite useful to us, and we avoid the antipattern of long, dull, sessions estimating items on backlogs that will never see the light of day.    InfoQ: With your successful implementation of mob programming within Unruly, what do you see as the next area for improvement within your design/development process, or what new technique are you keen to try?    Wilson and Weber: We had plenty of time to wax lyrical on the four-and-a-half hour train down to Cornwall. It feels like the next step for Mob Programming could be “Flash Mobs” (we talked about these in our Agile on the Beach session). Rather being wed to the idea of core teams, we are experimenting with being much more fluid and empowering developers to move where they can provide the best value rather than being stuck on one team. This takes the form of ephemeral “flash mobs”, which convene to achieve specific tasks and then disband, or freely joining other teams to pair/mob in order to learn/create. Not just self-organising teams, but self-forming teams.  We find the core principles of Open Space (if you’re not learning or contributing where you are, find somewhere else where you will be) are a great yardstick for facilitating this kind of environment.  We have, however, still to fully resolve this way of working with our preferred approach of teams owning the full product lifecycle from inception through to keeping products running in production.    InfoQ: Thanks for your time today. Is there anything else you would like to share with the InfoQ readers?    Wilson and Weber: If you’re based around London and interested in both discussing and learning about cutting-edge XP practices, we have a meet-up once a month called Extreme Programmers London, where we talk about XP from more a technical point of view than a process standpoint - our meet-up page is at http://www.meetup.com/Extreme-Programmers-London/    The video for Wilson and Weber’s ' Product development in an Unruly Mob ' can be found on the Agile on the Beach YouTube channel.      Discuss  "@en ;
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Death in Airbnb Rental Raises Liability Questions - The New York :: 1540 14 airbnb insurance homeaway coverage
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<http://www.nytimes.com/2015/11/14/your-money/death-in-airbnb-rental-raises-liability-questions.html?hp&action=click&pgtype=Homepage&clickSource=story-heading&module=second-column-region®ion=top-news&WT.nav=top-news&_r=0> rdfs:label "Death in Airbnb Rental Raises Liability Questions - The New York Times"@en ;
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dc:description "   Photo   Zak Stone wrote an essay about the death of his father, who was killed when a tree fell on him while staying at an Airbnb rental in Texas.  Credit Monica Almeida/The New York Times     There is no better — or sadder — way to explain how Zak Stone's father died in a vacation rental than how he did himself this week, so this is how he began the essay he wrote for the online magazine Matter.     \"The rope swing looked inviting. Photos of it on Airbnb brought my family to the cottage in Texas. Hanging from a tree as casually as baggy jeans, the swing was the essence of leisure, of Southern hospitality, of escape. When my father decided to give it a try on Thanksgiving morning, the trunk it was tied to broke in half and fell on his head, immediately ending most of his brain activity.\"  The death is devastating, but no one should be shocked by it, either. As with any big hotel operation, Airbnb hosts are putting up so many people each night that fatal accidents are almost inevitable.    But the incident — and a second death that Mr. Stone disclosed in the essay in Matter, part of the publishing service Medium — does raise important insurance and safety questions about Airbnb, its competitor HomeAway and hotels themselves at the same time as Airbnb is offering more protection.   Photo   Zak Stone and his father, Louis, in 1993.    Let's start with insurance. A year ago, Airbnb hosts were on their own when it came to liability, and most of them probably assumed that their homeowner's insurance would offer coverage if a guest was hurt or worse. But most homeowner's insurance policies have an explicit exclusion for commercial activity.  Airbnb this year began offering free, automatic secondary coverage for liability, in case a host's insurance company denied a claim. Last month, Airbnb made that coverage primary . It's still free, and it covers up to $1 million an incident. It is not yet clear how friction-free the claims-paying process will be. After the death of Mr. Stone's father, Louis, his family reached a settlement with the insurance company for his host, not Airbnb or its insurer. According to Mr. Stone, that host had an insurance policy that explicitly covered commercial activity. He said in his essay that Airbnb paid a$2 million settlement for the second death he reported, which was from carbon monoxide poisoning in Taiwan.  HomeAway, which was acquired by Expedia last week for $3.9 billion, takes a different approach to insurance. Rather than offering free liability coverage, it urges homeowners to buy more comprehensive coverage elsewhere. The policy that it recommends includes property and contents damage and loss of business in addition to liability. HomeAway earns a marketing fee when its customers buy from its recommended provider, CBIZ. So why doesn't HomeAway offer free coverage like Airbnb? Partly because it would be too expensive to offer the comprehensive policy that prudent homeowners probably should have. But HomeAway's business is different, too. It matches homeowners and travelers and likens itself to a classified advertising service. While HomeAway did not say this specifically, it is possible that it believes that its process shields the company from potential liability and removes any need to provide automatic coverage for homeowners who list there. Scott Wolf, the president of CBIZ's property and casualty program division, said in an interview this week that he could not figure out how every Airbnb customer would ultimately be covered. He pointed to Airbnb's stated annual limit of$10 million on its policy, which its hosts could exhaust with 10 $1 million claims. He estimated that each policy pays out an average of$100 in liability claims each year (though that average results in large part from a smaller number of claims that are extremely high). If Airbnb has, say, 500,000 listings on average (though there are more occupied properties than that many nights of the year), that is $50 million in claims, which is$40 million more than that annual $10 million cap. One possibility may be that Airbnb, which has many single travelers staying in single rooms for short periods, simply won't need to make as many claims as HomeAway travelers do. After all, people who use HomeAway often travel with their families to large rental homes with slippery pool decks and leg-eating trampolines. But Mr. Wolf said that his experience insuring bed-and-breakfast owners suggested that hosts who were in residence were actually more vulnerable to claims than absentee owners. After all, you can't blame a host for a spill that caused a fall if the host is not there. Airbnb did not want to go into detail about what it pays for its insurance and the precise policy language. But Nick Papas, a spokesman, said that since it started offering liability coverage in January, eight million people had stayed with an Airbnb host in the United States and fewer than 50 hosts had filed claims. \"We are extremely confident in the finances underlying our program,\" he said in an emailed statement. \"When we were looking to expand it, we had multiple competitive bids from different insurers. The numbers show how low the risk factors are, and they're eager to work with us.\" As for the safety questions, this seemed the perfect opportunity to figure out once and for all whether Airbnb and HomeAway rentals are more dangerous than hotels: Just ask everyone for the accidental death rate per 100 million room nights and compare. That only works if companies are willing to answer, though. HomeAway offered its number right away: zero deaths, as far as it knows. Mr. Stone disclosed the two Airbnb deaths, and the company would not comment further on its death rate. The American Hotel & Lodging Association does not track industrywide rates. A Hyatt spokeswoman would not disclose its rate or explain why it refused to share it, and an InterContinental Hotels Group spokesman declined to comment. Best Western and Starwood said they did not have the data. Felicia McLemore, a Marriott spokeswoman, and Christine Miller, a Hilton spokeswoman, did not respond to repeated requests for comment on their companies' death rates. Without good data, we're all flailing about looking for anecdotes. So let's start with those nondisclosing hotels. On two separate occasions within weeks of one another in 2013, three people died from carbon monoxide poisoning in the same Best Western hotel in North Carolina. A USA Today investigation that same year turned up eight deaths and 170 other people treated for carbon monoxide poisoning in hotels in the three previous years. Best Western said the company now had an industry-leading carbon monoxide detection and alarm system. On the fire front, hotels and motels averaged 3,700 a year from 2006 to 2010, according to the National Fire Protection Association, resulting in an average of 12 deaths, excluding emergency personnel, and 143 injuries a year. We know less about Airbnb and HomeAway, but one thing we know for sure is that their hosts need not follow the myriad regulations about exits and doors and alarms that hotels and motels do. The companies could inspect each property for safety, but they don't. And according to Liz Krueger, a New York state senator who has frequently tangled with the home renting companies, it would be better if somebody else did it. \"They'd be self-declaring, and it wouldn't be a governmental entity,\" she said. \"Call me a supporter of government, because I am, but I think there is a reason you want a third party doing the evaluation as opposed to an interested party who would have a reason not to document the correct things.\" Still, who knows if a government inspector would have noticed the dead tree that killed Mr. Stone's father or the water heater reportedly at issue in the Taiwan death. Paying strangers to stay in their homes requires that we assume some risk, and we may simply have to get comfortable that we may never know exactly how much risk. If you're a host renting out a home or a room, tell your homeowner's insurance company, even if you think Airbnb's liability coverage gives you most of the protection you need. After all, your guest's lawyer will probably sue your insurance company, too, if there is an injury on your property. Make sure that your guests know how to get out in an emergency and that your home has many alarms and is free of unnecessary hazards. Paying guests should check batteries on fire and carbon monoxide detectors, be wary of kitchen equipment or outdoor toys they don't normally use and keep a special eye out for things that could harm small children. Still, let's give the new players in lodging some credit where it is due. More insurance coverage is better than less, and urging people to be aware of their risks is a welcome evolution in how these companies operate. Make the most of your money. Every Monday get articles about retirement, saving for college, investing, new online financial services and much more. Sign up for the Your Money newsletter here . A version of this article appears in print on November 14, 2015, on page B1 of the New York edition with the headline: Liability Questions After Death in Airbnb Rental. Order Reprints | Today's Paper | Subscribe "@en ; dc:title "Death in Airbnb Rental Raises Liability Questions - The New York Times" ; tags:associatedTag tags:airbnb, tags:coverage, tags:homeaway, tags:insurance ; rdfs:comment "This is a web page. A technical or academic document (difficult)."@en ; ns1:description "Home rental sites, including HomeAway, do not have the same insurance and safety requirements as hotels, although Airbnb recently improved its coverage."@en ; ns1:image "http://static01.nyt.com/images/2015/11/14/business/14money2/14money2-thumbLarge.jpg"@en ; ns1:title "Death in Airbnb Rental Raises Liability Questions"@en ; ns1:url "http://www.nytimes.com/2015/11/14/your-money/death-in-airbnb-rental-raises-liability-questions.html"@en .  Slit-Scan Photography with Large Format Cameras :: 1899 16 plane focal film shutters @prefix annot: <http://www.w3.org/2000/10/annotation-ns#> . @prefix bel: <http://purl.org/net/bel-epa/ont/2007/7/rathaus> . @prefix dbpedia: <http://dbpedia.org/resource/> . @prefix dc: <http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/> . @prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> . @prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> . @prefix geo: <http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#> . @prefix prism: <http://prismstandard.org/namespaces/1.2/basic#> . @prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> . @prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> . @prefix tags: <http://www.holygoat.co.uk/owl/redwood/0.1/tags/> . @prefix xml: <http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace> . @prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> . <http://people.rit.edu/andpph/text-slit-scan.html> rdfs:label "Slit-Scan Photography with Large Format Cameras"@en ; dbpedia:Flesch-Kincaid_Readability_Test 48 ; dbpedia:Gunning-Fog_Index 16 ; dbpedia:Vocabulary 307 ; prism:wordCount 1899 ; dc:date "Sat, 14 Nov 2015 17:30:57 GMT"@en ; dc:description " Interesting distortions can be made by photographing reflections in irregular surfaces of glass or mylar. They can also be produced by passing either the image forming light either at the taking or printing stage through prisms or transparent materials having nonhomogeneous composition. Both of these methods depend on altering the normal, expected or standard behavior of image forming light rays at the instant in time that the picture is made. Another technique for creating distortions involves the use of a fine slit that moves past the film at the time the picture is made. In fact, a focal plane shutter is just such a device and the distortion produced by these shutters is fairly well understood by photographers at large and the distortions thus produced are called focal-plane shutter distortion. As a matter of background, it is generally impossible to tell whether a photograph was made with a leaf or diaphragm shutter or with a focal plane one. Unless the focal plane shutter is not functioning well the statement above is almost invariably true. The one condition under which it starts to become possible to differentiate and identify the kind of shutter that was used to make a given photograph is when the subject is not stationary but is in motion. If we simply concentrate on the subject then the statement must be modified and what must happen is that the image of the subject must move with respect to the film while the exposure is taking place in order to be able to pick up the characteristics associated with focal plane shutter distortion. Below are a series of idealized results that might be produced with leaf, diaphragm or, in the digital realm, \"global shutters\" and with focal plane shutters or \"rolling shutter\" type digital cameras. Notice that the images associated with leaf shutters simply exhibit what might be called motion blur while the ones made with a focal plane shutter the results show not only blur but also a distortion that is associated with the essentially \"scanning\" nature of such shutters. <>To understand just why focal plane shutters distort rapidly moving images one needs to simply establish that a moving slit shutter takes some time to travel across a stationary image of some subject. If the image then moves in the same direction as the slit shutter is moving then the shutter will take longer to traverse the image of the subject than under the previous condition and this will produce on the film a stretched out image of the subject. On the other hand, if the image is moving in the opposite direction as the focal plane shutter slit, then the shutter curtain traverses the subject's image in less time than if the image had been standing still resulting in a compressed version of the subject. </> Movements at right angles to the motion of the slit introduce tilting of the subject either in the direction of motion of the subject or in the opposite direction depending on the direction of motion of the shutter slit with respect to that of the subject's image. A very famous photograph that depends on focal plane shutter distortion for its visual impact is one made by Henri Lartigue with a large camera equipped with a focal plane shutter. The photo shows a race car leaning in one direction while spectators and telephone poles included in the picture are leaning in the opposite direction. This indicates that the camera was panned causing the background to tilt one way while the panning speed was not fast enough to keep up with the vehicle thus causing the race car to lean in the opposite direction. Close examination of the degree of tilt in the image seems to also indicate that either the car changed velocity, the camera was not panned at a constant velocity and/or that the shutter curtain velocity across the film gate was not quite constant. Another photographer who took advantage of the characteristics of focal plane shutter distortion but in a more controlled way was Robert Doisneau who photographed a couple spinning on a turntable as a slowed down focal plane shutter exposed the scene sequentially from one edge of the film to the other. Now one might wonder why it is that there is no significant body of work that illustrate the effects of focal plane shutter distortion. It turns out that the reason for this is that most focal plane shutters traverse the film plane quite quickly in relationship to the speed at which the images of most subjects move along on the film. It is important to realize that this is not related to the fact that one can achieve short exposure times with focal plane shutters since short times can be achieved by making the shutter slit very narrow. The reason is that modern shutters have better springs and other mechanical characteristics that allow them to accelerate and decelerate more rapidly than in older shutters. Focal plane shutters associated with 4x5 Speed Graphic and Graflex cameras move much more slowly than today's 35mm camera shutters. Some photographers purposely slowed the shutter tensioning down to achieve startling focal plane shutter distortion effects. Some of these cameras may even be still in use today. Finally, there have been many amateur and also some commercial photographers who have devised ingenuous means for introducing focal plane shutter distortion by modifying their 35's, their Wideluxes or related cameras, or simply building matte-boxes that were fitted with a moving slot to produce a piecemeal but continuous exposure of the film. Which brings us to the illustration at the top of this article! It was made with a home-built moving slit type matte box shown in the illustrations below. The device reminds one of an oversized lens shade and consists of a 12 inch cube made out of plywood that has an open front and on the back wall it has a hole through which the camera lens looks into the box. The open front of the box is flanked by a pair of \"L\" shaped, metal (could be some other material!) \"lips\". These are attached to the box edges in such a manner that they reach over the edges forming a channel. Within this channel, and covering the open front of the box rides a 12 inch by 3 foot opaque, black, cardboard has been cut mask into which a slot about 2 or 3 millimeters in width and extending almost the full width of the mask. Because this leaves a very weak connection at the edges, a piece of clear glass is glued across the slot to strengthen the mask and prevent the slot from breaking or varying in width once tensioned when the mask is placed in motion. In the slit-scan box illustrated here the mask is moved by passing it between rubber coated rollers, one of which is motorized. In this case one of the roller's shafts as well as the motor's shaft are fitted with sprocketed belt drive gears and a flexible sprocketed belt connects the two. The motor is a 24 volt DC gear head, high torque, motor. It can be operated at variable speed by simply powering it at lower than maximum voltage and it can be made to move the mask up or down by the simple expedient of reversing the polarity of the voltage supplied to the motor. As shown in the illustrations and the drawing, the camera is firmly attached to the box by screwing the lens onto a step up ring that has threads onto which the lens can be screwed and whose outer flange is kept attached to the box by four or more flat headed screws whose heads reach over the ring's edge and that are screwed into the box just enough so that the ring can still turn. The fit should be snug. This will allow the camera to be turned to suit the photographer but still prevent the camera from detaching itself from the box accidentally. Just don't knock the camera off the ring's threads! The scheme for moving the mask could be something very basic and I recommend that you strongly consider a simple \"pulling\" mechanism as shown in the attached drawing. To use this moving slit matte box you simply aim the box/camera combination at some location where there will be some uncontrolled or contrived action. Generally you would place the box/camera assembly on a sturdy tripod to make sure that the camera remains pointed at the area of interest. You then move the mask so that the slot is either at the very top of its travel or the very bottom, depending on where you want the exposure to start. At this time you open the shutter of the camera and lock it open. Since the camera is looking into the black box the film is not being exposed at all. Now you power-up the motor and the mask starts to move, hopefully in the right direction (if not then reverse the polarity of the power to the motor) across the open end of the box. As it moves, different areas of the scene in front of the camera will be exposed sequentially on the film. Much like if the exposure had been made with a slit moving at the film plane. It is recommended that you use a fairly small aperture to make the slot sharper, its edges better defined, than if you use a large aperture on the camera lens. This makes the edges of moving objects more distinct and the slit-scan effect more obvious and dramatic. Determining proper exposure is a bit of a trial and error situation since the slot has a tendency to interfere with the aperture that you are setting your lens to and thus the amount of light at the film plane will not be quite what one would expect for any given aperture. In any case, one can start with determining the exposure time by dividing the width of the slit by the rate at which it moves at the voltage you will be operating the motor. It helps to make oneself a chart of voltages vs. exposure times and attaching it to the side of the box. Because during the time that an exposure is actually made the shutter is blocking the viewfinder it is often necessary to choreograph the event that one will be photographing. The subjects will need to be given directions as to when and how to move and when to do it in relation to the position of the slot on its way across the field of view of the camera. One solution might be to use a camera such as the Canon RT or the older Pellix which have fixed, semitransparent mirrors that do not move during exposure. These would allow the photographer the opportunity to see in the viewfinder the relationships between the moving image of the slot and the subjects in front of the camera. In any case, this slit-scan photography matte box is a wonderful special effects device. It is intended to produce images that will, to some extent, startle an audience and make them ask \"how did they do that?!\". Click here for an overview article including further applications Click on this line to visit my main articles page If you'd like to communicate with me about this topic simply send me e-mail. Andrew Davidhazy - andpph@rit.edu or by clicking HERE! . "@en ; dc:title "Slit-Scan Photography with Large Format Cameras" ; tags:associatedTag tags:film, tags:focal, tags:plane, tags:shutters ; rdfs:comment "This is a web page. A technical or academic document (difficult)."@en .  Understanding Monads · Jezen Thomas :: 745 12 monads functors haskell applicatives @prefix annot: <http://www.w3.org/2000/10/annotation-ns#> . @prefix bel: <http://purl.org/net/bel-epa/ont/2007/7/rathaus> . @prefix dbpedia: <http://dbpedia.org/resource/> . @prefix dc: <http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/> . @prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> . @prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> . @prefix geo: <http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#> . @prefix ns1: <http://ogp.me/ns#> . @prefix ns2: <twitter:> . @prefix prism: <http://prismstandard.org/namespaces/1.2/basic#> . @prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> . @prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> . @prefix tags: <http://www.holygoat.co.uk/owl/redwood/0.1/tags/> . @prefix xml: <http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace> . @prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> . <http://jezenthomas.com/understanding-monads/> rdfs:label "Understanding Monads · Jezen Thomas"@en ; dbpedia:Flesch-Kincaid_Readability_Test 54 ; dbpedia:Gunning-Fog_Index 12 ; dbpedia:Vocabulary 150 ; ns1:description "Repeat after me: A monad is not a burrito. A monad is not a burrito. A monad is-" ; ns1:image "http://jezenthomas.com/img/.jpg" ; ns1:site_name "Jezen Thomas" ; ns1:title "Understanding Monads · Jezen Thomas" ; ns1:type "article" ; ns1:url "http://jezenthomas.com/understanding-monads/" ; prism:wordCount 745 ; dc:date "Sat, 14 Nov 2015 17:31:09 GMT"@en ; dc:description " Understanding Monads November 13, 2015 Yesterday I did not understand Monads, Functors, or Applicatives. Today I understand all three. Not well enough to explain them to a six year old, but well enough to put them to use in the code that I write. I first encountered Monads about 14 months ago, while working through the Haskell chapter of Seven Languages in Seven Weeks . The author presented Monads as an alien concept, the comprehension of which is elusive to all but the hairiest of neckbeards. I'd like to assert that this does not have to be the case. Why was I intimidated by the Monad? I can attribute the fear to a few reasons, in no particular order: Hype In the same way that companies adopt immature JavaScript libraries and frameworks after their virtues are extolled by Hacker News pundits, software people tend to overstate the terror of the Monad which is then internalised by the impressionable people trying to learn functional programming. Learning Monads, Functors, and Applicatives is a relatively big pill to swallow, but it's not that hard. It does take some time, and I'm quite certain that any Learn Monads in 10 Minutes! tutorial is going to have to gloss over many important penny-drop moments for the sake of brevity. Sometimes undertaking a large project (in this case learning a collection of new concepts) requires some naïvety to prevent the fear of failure from manifesting itself as an inability to start working. This leads me to my next point- Lack of context The Monad tutorials I have read until today seem to mostly focus on the Monad, and it's an unfair emphasis. After having overcome this hurdle myself, I can now tell you that of course learning Monads is going to be difficult when you lack the context of the why behind the what . In order to understand why we need Monads, we first need to understand why we need Functors and Applicatives. In all cases, the mechanics of each concept are not hugely complicated. Simple explanations with examples of why each concept needs to exist is what is sorely needed. If you do not first understand Functors and Applicatives and what they are used for, you will have very little of the context needed to learn what a Monad is for. Poor use of language After having bought into the terror of the Monad, some programmers proceed to explain the concept through an overly simplified analogy, as if this somehow compensates for the fear the pundits have instilled in us from the beginning. Monads are sometimes described in terms of things , but they are not things. To talk about Monads is to talk about context and behaviour. A Monad is not a burrito. How did I overcome these challenges and finally learn to understand the Monad? I bought, downloaded, and read Maybe Haskell by Pat Brisbin on a long-haul flight. Don't be put off by the fact my flight was long-haul; the book is short. I'm just sleep-deprived and a slow reader. It's important the book is short. A more traditional Haskell tutorial spends an eternity presenting a million ways to manipulate lists, and I am bored to indifference before ever coming near the chapters on Functors, Applicatives, and Monads. I don't know Brisbin personally, and I in no way benefit from praising his short book so highly. The point I would like to carry across is that as a reader, I want the story straight. It's unbearable to continue reading when an author is dancing around the issue; constantly flirting and selling the benefits and elegance of the way Haskell works. Brisbin's book gave it to me straight. I'm driven to write all this because I am excited about what this new knowledge arms with with. There are some powerful and totally uncomplicated ideas that emerge from learning about <$> (fmap) and <*> (apply), the most prominent of which is that functions should assume they are receiving valid inputs. Most of the Ruby and JavaScript code I have written until now has been littered with nil or undefined checks, and this defensive style of programming quickly becomes a total mess. I have learned that the nil checks should be moved out to the boundaries of the system; the data should be validated in one place.  Even if you don't care to learn Haskell, I implore you. Go read that book.   - All articles    Questions & Comments  Have a question about this post or anything else? Ask away on Twitter .   "@en ;
dc:title "Understanding Monads · Jezen Thomas" ;
tags:associatedTag tags:applicatives,
tags:functors,
tags:haskell,
tags:monads ;
rdfs:comment "This is a web page. A summary (moderate)."@en ;
ns2:creator "@jezenthomas" .


Tufte CSS :: 4618 11 tufte css text margin
@prefix annot: <http://www.w3.org/2000/10/annotation-ns#> .
@prefix bel: <http://purl.org/net/bel-epa/ont/2007/7/rathaus> .
@prefix dbpedia: <http://dbpedia.org/resource/> .
@prefix dc: <http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/> .
@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
@prefix geo: <http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#> .
@prefix prism: <http://prismstandard.org/namespaces/1.2/basic#> .
@prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> .
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix tags: <http://www.holygoat.co.uk/owl/redwood/0.1/tags/> .
@prefix xml: <http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .

<https://edwardtufte.github.io/tufte-css/> rdfs:label "Tufte CSS"@en ;
dbpedia:Flesch-Kincaid_Readability_Test 57 ;
dbpedia:Gunning-Fog_Index 11 ;
dbpedia:Vocabulary 824 ;
prism:wordCount 4618 ;
dc:date "Sat, 14 Nov 2015 17:30:58 GMT"@en ;
dc:description """ Tufte CSS  By Dave Liepmann & Edward Tufte   Tufte CSS provides tools to style web articles using the ideas demonstrated by Edward Tufte's books and handouts. Tufte's style is known for its simplicity, extensive use of sidenotes, tight integration of graphics with text, and carefully chosen typography.  Tufte CSS was created by Dave Liepmann and is now an Edward Tufte project. The original idea was cribbed from Tufte- L a T e X and R Markdown's Tufte Handout format . This page was in fact originally an adaptation of the Tufte Handout Example PDF. We give hearty thanks to all the people who have contributed to those projects.  If you see anything that Tufte CSS could improve, we welcome your contribution in the form of an issue or pull request on the GitHub project: tufte-css . Please note the contribution guidelines .  Finally, a reminder about the goal of this project. The web is not print. Webpages are not books. Therefore, the goal of Tufte CSS is not to say "websites should look like this interpretation of Tufte's books" but rather "here are some techniques Tufte developed that we've found useful in print; maybe you can find a way to make them useful on the web". Tufte CSS is merely a sketch of one way to implement this particular set of ideas. It should be a starting point, not a design goal, because any project should present their information as best suits their particular circumstances.    Getting Started  To use Tufte CSS, copy tufte.css and the et-book directory of font files to your project directory, then add the following to your HTML document's head block:  <link rel="stylesheet"
href="tufte.css"/>  Now you just have to use the provided CSS rules, and the Tufte CSS conventions described in this document. For best results, View Source and Inspect Element frequently.    Fundamentals  Sections and Headings  Organize your document with an article element inside your body tag. Inside that, use section tags around each logical grouping of text and headings.  Tufte CSS uses h1 for the document title, p with class subtitle for the document subtitle, h2 for section headings, and h3 for low-level headings. More specific headings are not supported. If you feel the urge to reach for a heading of level 4 or greater, consider redesigning your document:   [It is] notable that the Feynman lectures (3 volumes) write about all of physics in 1800 pages, using only 2 levels of hierarchical headings: chapters and A-level heads in the text. It also uses the methodology of sentences which then cumulate sequentially into paragraphs , rather than the grunts of bullet points. Undergraduate Caltech physics is very complicated material, but it didn't require an elaborate hierarchy to organize.   Edward Tufte, forum post, 'Book design: advice and examples' thread    As a bonus, this excerpt regarding the use of headings provides an example of block quotes. They are just lightly styled, semantically correct HTML using blockquote and footer elements.   In his later books E.g. Beautiful Evidence , Tufte starts each section with a bit of vertical space, a non-indented paragraph, and the first few words of the sentence set in small caps. For this we use a span with the class newthought , as demonstrated at the beginning of this paragraph. Vertical spacing is accomplished separately through <section> tags. Be consistent: though we do so in this paragraph for the purpose of demonstration, do not alternate use of header elements and the newthought technique. Pick one approach and stick to it.  Text  Although paper handouts obviously have a pure white background, the web is better served by the use of slightly off-white and off-black colors. Tufte CSS uses #fffff8 and #111111 because they are nearly indistinguishable from their 'pure' cousins, but dial down the harsh contrast. We stick to the greyscale for text, reserving color for specific, careful use in figures and images.  In print, Tufte has used the proprietary Monotype Bembo See Tufte's comment in the Tufte book fonts thread. font. A similar effect is achieved in digital formats with the now open-source ET Book , which Tufte CSS supplies with a @font-face reference to a .ttf file. In case ET Book somehow doesn't work, Tufte CSS degrades gracefully to other serif fonts like Palatino and Georgia.  Also notice how Tufte CSS includes separate font files for bold (strong) and italic (emphasis), instead of relying on the browser to mechanically transform the text. This is typographic best practice. It's also really important . Thus concludes my inappropriate usage of em and strong for the purpose of example.  If you prefer sans-serifs, use the sans class. It relies on Gill Sans, Tufte's sans-serif font of choice. Notice how weird and jarring this paragraph is, since it switches from serif to sans-serif? Don't follow this paragraph's bad example! Pick either serif or sans-serif for paragraphs throughout your document.  Links in Tufte CSS match the body text in color and do not change on mouseover or when clicked. Here is a dummy example that goes nowhere. These links are underlined, since this is the most widely recognized indicator of clickable text. ⊕ Blue text, while also a widely recognizable clickable-text indicator, is crass and distracting. Luckily, it is also rendered unnecessary by the use of underlining. However, because most browsers' default underlining does not clear descenders and is so thick and distracting, the underline effect is instead achieved using CSS trickery involving background gradients instead of standard text-decoration . Credit goes to Adam Shwartz for that technique.  As always, these design choices are merely one approach that Tufte CSS provides by default. Other approaches, such as changing color on click or mouseover, or using highlighting or color instead of underlining to denote links, could also be made to work. The goal is to make sentences readable without interference from links, as well as to make links immediately identifiable even by casual web users.  Lists  Tufte points out that while lists have valid uses, they tend to promote ineffective writing habits due to their "lack of syntactic and intellectual discipline". He is particularly critical of hierarchical and bullet-pointed lists. So before reaching for an HTML list element, ask yourself:   Does this list actually have to be represented using an HTML ul or ol element?  Would my idea be better expressed as sentences in paragraphs?  Is my message causally complex enough to warrant a flow diagram instead?   This is but a small subset of a proper overview of the topic of lists in communication. A better way to understand Tufte's thoughts on lists would be to read "The Cognitive Style of PowerPoint: Pitching Out Corrupts Within," a chapter in Tufte's book Beautiful Evidence , excerpted at some length by Tufte himself on his website . The whole piece is information-dense and therefore difficult to summarize. He speaks to web design specifically, but in terms of examples and principles rather than as a set of simple do-this, don't-do-that prescriptions. It is well worth reading in full for that reason alone.  For these reasons, Tufte CSS encourages caution before reaching for a list element, and by default removes the bullet points from unordered lists.    Epigraphs    The English language . . . becomes ugly and inaccurate because our thoughts are foolish, but the slovenliness of our language makes it easier for us to have foolish thoughts.  George Orwell, "Politics and the English Language"    For a successful technology, reality must take precedence over public relations, for Nature cannot be fooled.  Richard P. Feynman, "What Do You Care What Other People Think?"    I do not paint things, I paint only the differences between things. Henri Matisse, Henri Matisse Dessins: thèmes et variations (Paris, 1943), 37.    If you'd like to introduce your page or a section of your page with some quotes, use epigraphs. Modeled after chapter epigraphs in Tufte's books (particularly Beautiful Evidence ), these are blockquote elements with a bit of specialized styling. Quoted text is italicized. The source goes in a footer element inside the blockquote . We have provided three examples in the epigraph of this section, demonstrating shorter and longer quotes, with and without a paragraph tag, and showing how multiple quotes within an epigraph fit together with the use of a wrapper class.    Sidenotes  One of the most distinctive features of Tufte's style is his extensive use of sidenotes. This is a sidenote. Sidenotes are like footnotes, except they don't force the reader to jump their eye to the bottom of the page, but instead display off to the side in the margin. Perhaps you have noticed their use in this document already. You are very astute.  Sidenotes are a great example of the web not being like print. On sufficiently large viewports, Tufte CSS uses the margin for sidenotes, margin notes, and small figures. On smaller viewports, elements that would go in the margin are hidden until the user toggles them into view. The goal is to present related but not necessary information such as asides or citations as close as possible to the text that references them. At the same time, this secondary information should stay out of the way of the eye, not interfering with the progression of ideas in the main text.  Sidenotes consist of two elements: a superscript reference number that goes inline with the text, and a sidenote with content. To add the former, just put a label and dummy checkbox into the text where you want the reference to go, like so:  <label for="sn-demo" class="margin-toggle sidenote-number"></label>
<input type="checkbox" id="sn-demo" class="margin-toggle"/>  You must manually assign a reference id to each side or margin note, replacing "sn-demo" in the for and the id attribute values with an appropriate descriptor. It is useful to use prefixes like sn- for sidenotes and mn- for margin notes.  Immediately adjacent to that sidenote reference in the main text goes the sidenote content itself, in a span with class sidenote . This tag is also inserted directly in the middle of the body text, but is either pushed into the margin or hidden by default. Make sure to position your sidenotes correctly by keeping the sidenote-number label close to the sidenote itself.  If you want a sidenote without footnote-style numberings, then you want a margin note. ⊕   This is a margin note. Notice there isn't a number preceding the note. On large screens, a margin note is just a sidenote that omits the reference number. This lessens the distracting effect taking away from the flow of the main text, but can increase the cognitive load of matching a margin note to its referent text. However, on small screens, a margin note is like a sidenote except its viewability-toggle is a symbol rather than a reference number. This document currently uses the symbol ⊕ ( ⊕ ), but it's up to you.  Margin notes are created just like sidenotes, but with the marginnote class for the content and the margin-toggle class for the label and dummy checkbox. For instance, here is the code for the margin note used in the previous paragraph:  <label for="mn-demo" class="margin-toggle">⊕</label>
<input type="checkbox" id="mn-demo" class="margin-toggle"/>
<span class="marginnote">
This is a margin note. Notice there isn't a number preceding the note.
</span>  Figures in the margin are created as margin notes, as demonstrated in the next section.    Figures  Tufte emphasizes tight integration of graphics with text. Data, graphs, and figures are kept with the text that discusses them. In print, this means they are not relegated to a separate page. On the web, that means readability of graphics and their accompanying text without extra clicks, tab-switching, or scrolling.  Figures should try to use the figure element, which by default are constrained to the main column. Don't wrap figures in a paragraph tag. Any label or margin note goes in a figcaption tag inside the figure. For example, most of the time one should introduce a figure directly into the main flow of discussion, like so:   From Edward Tufte, Visual Display of Quantitative Information , page 92.    ⊕ F.J. Cole, "The History of Albrecht Dürer's Rhinoceros in Zooological Literature," Science, Medicine, and History: Essays on the Evolution of Scientific Thought and Medical Practice (London, 1953), ed. E. Ashworth Underwood, 337-356. From page 71 of Edward Tufte's Visual Explanations . But tight integration of graphics with text is central to Tufte's work even when those graphics are ancillary to the main body of a text. In many of those cases, a margin figure may be most appropriate. To place figures in the margin, just wrap an image (or whatever) in a margin note inside a p tag, as seen to the right of this paragraph.  If you need a full-width figure, give it the fullwidth class. Make sure that's inside an article , and it will take up (almost) the full width of the screen. To give it a caption, use a figcaption tag inside the figure tag. This approach is demonstrated below using Edward Tufte's English translation of the iconic Napoleon's March data visualization.    Napoleon's March (Edward Tufte's English translation)     Tables  Tabular data are presented by default with right-aligned numbers, left-aligned text, and minimal grid lines. The default font is Trebuchet Trebuchet has ~97% penetration . , though a given table might require a different choice. This turns out to be a major principle of tables in Tufte CSS: while there are some defaults, each table requires substantial individual care. Here, more than anywhere else in Tufte CSS, one must customize the styling in order to present one's data optimally.  Let's look at some examples. Here's one, from page 121 of Tufte's Visual Display of Quantitative Information :      Content and tone of front-page articles in 94 U.S. newspapers, October and November, 1974  Number of articles  Percent of articles with negative criticism of specific person or policy      Watergate: defendants and prosecutors, Ford's pardon of Nixon   537    49%     Inflation, high cost of living   415    28%     Government competence: costs, quality, salaries of public employees   322    30%     Confidence in government: power of special interests, trust in political leaders, dishonesty in politics   266    52%     Government power: regulation of business, secrecy, control of CIA and FBI   154    42%     Crime   123    30%     Race   103    25%     Unemployment   100    13%     Shortages: energy, food   68    16%       Note how beyond a few fundamentals, much of what makes this table Tuftean is that its content is descriptive. The column headings and first cell of each row are terse, but don't rely on abbreviations or labels that require looking elsewhere for explanation. All information necessary for processing the table is contained within the table. The table is a single unit for examination.  Please understand: this is not the One True Table. Such a style does not exist. This table gets some styling from tufte.css , but largely relies on custom styling. What makes this table work is its column spacing and font choice (overriding the table default of Trebuchet to return to ET Book), unique to #newspaper-tone style contained in the head of this document. This is because one must craft each table with custom care to the narrative one is telling with that specific data. You should examine this table with your browser's developer tools to distinguish default Tufte CSS table styling from custom styles.  So take Tufte CSS table styling not as "the table style to use", but rather as "a table style to start from". From there, use principles to guide you: avoid chartjunk, optimize the data-ink ratio ("within reason", as Tufte says), and "mobilize every graphical element, perhaps several times over, to show the data." . Page 139, The Visual Display of Quantitative Information , Edward Tufte 2001. Furthermore, one must know when to reach for more complex data presentation tools, like a custom graphic or a JavaScript charting library.  Let's start looking at alternative table styles. Academic publications written in L a T e X often rely on the booktabs package to produce clean, clear tables. Similar results, tweaked to Tufte's preference for minimal extraneous lines, can be achieved in Tufte CSS with the booktabs class:      Items     Animal  Description  Price ($) Gnat per gram 13.65 each 0.01 Gnu stuffed 92.50 Emu stuffed 33.33 Armadillo frozen 8.99 Notice how this table is centered and compact. The heavy rules that booktabs usually puts on the top and bottom are gone. A lighter-weight rule is used to separate the table head from its body. If you need a column heading to span two or more other column headings, an even lighter-weight rule may be used. Vertical rules are unnecessary. Additionally, the spacing around the rules has been increased to avoid a cramped appearance. Tufte CSS also provides supertable functionality, pulled from page 179 of Tufte's Visual Display of Quantitative Information . I'll let Tufte introduce it: Tables also work well when the data presentation requires many localized comparisons. In this 410-number table that I designed for the New York Times to show how different people voted presidential elections in the United States, comparisons between the elections of 1980 and 1976 are read across each line; within-election analysis is conducted by reading downward in the clusters of three to seven lines. The horizontal rules divide the data into topical paragraphs; the rows are ordered so as to tell an ordered story about the elections. This kind of elaborate table, a supertable , is likely to attract and intrigue readers through its organized, sequential detail and reference-like quality. One supertable is better than a hundred little bar charts. How Different Groups Voted for President Based on 12,782 interviews with voters at their polling places. Shown is how each group divided its vote for President and, in parentheses, the percentage of the electorate belonging to each group. CARTER REAGAN ANDERSON CARTER/FORD in 1976 Democrats (43%) 66 26 6 77 - 22 Independents (23%) 30 54 12 43 - 54 Republicans (28%) 11 84 4 9 - 90 Liberals (17%) 57 27 11 70 - 26 Moderates (46%) 42 48 8 51 - 48 Conservatives (28%) 23 71 4 29 - 70 Liberal Democrats (9%) 70 14 13 86 - 12 Moderate Democrats (22%) 66 28 6 77 - 22 Conservative Democrats (8%) 53 41 4 64 - 35 Politically Active Democrats (3%) 72 19 8 — Democrats favoring Kennedy in primaries (13%) 66 24 8 — Liberal Independents (4%) 50 29 15 64 - 29 Moderate Independents (12%) 31 53 13 45 - 53 Conservative Independents (7%) 22 69 6 26 - 72 Liberal Republicans (2%) 25 66 9 17 - 82 Moderate Republicans (11%) 13 81 5 11 - 88 Conservative Republicans (12%) 6 91 2 6 - 93 Politically Active Republicans (2%) 5 89 6 — East (32%) 43 47 8 51 - 47 South (27%) 44 51 3 54 - 55 Midwest (20%) 41 51 6 48 - 50 West (11%) 35 52 10 46 - 51 Blacks (10%) 82 14 3 82 - 16 Hispanics (2%) 54 36 7 75 - 24 Whites (88%) 36 55 8 47 - 52 Female (49%) 45 46 7 50 - 48 Male (51%) 37 54 7 50 - 48 Female, favors equal rights amendment (22%) 54 32 11 — Female, opposes equal rights amendment (15%) 29 66 4 — Catholic (25%) 40 51 7 54 - 44 Jewish (5%) 45 39 14 64 - 34 Protestant (46%) 37 56 6 44 - 55 Born-again white Protestant (17%) 34 61 4 — 18 - 21 years old (6%) 44 43 11 48 - 50 22 - 29 years old (17%) 43 43 11 51 - 46 30 - 44 years old (31%) 37 54 7 49 - 49 45 - 59 years old (23%) 39 55 6 47 - 52 60 years or older (18%) 40 54 4 47 - 52 Family Income Less than$10,000 (13%)   50    41    6    58 - 40     $10,000 -$14,999 (14%)   47    42    8    55 - 43     $15,000 -$24,999 (30%)   38    53    7    48 - 50     $25,000 -$50,000 (24%)   32    58    8    36 - 62     Over 50,000 (5%) 25 65 8 — Professional or manager (40%) 33 56 9 41 - 57 Clerical, sales, or other white-collar (11%) 42 48 8 46 - 53 Blue-collar worker (17%) 46 47 5 57 - 41 Agriculture (3%) 29 66 3 — Looking for work (3%) 55 35 7 65 - 34 Education High school or less (39%) 46 48 4 57 - 43 Some college (28%) 35 55 8 51 - 49 College graduate (27%) 35 51 11 45 - 55 Labor union household (26%) 47 44 7 59 - 39 No member of household in union (62%) 35 55 8 43-55 Family finances Better off than a year ago (16%) 53 37 8 30 - 70 Same (40%) 46 46 7 51 - 49 Worse off than a year ago (34%) 25 64 8 77 - 23 Family finances and political party Democrats, better off than a year ago (7%) 77 16 6 69 - 31 Democrats, worse off than a year ago (13%) 47 39 10 94 - 6 Independents, better off (3%) 45 36 12 — Independents, worse off (9%) 21 65 11 — Republicans, better off (4%) 18 77 5 3 - 97 Republicans, worse off (11%) 6 89 4 24 - 76 More important problem Unemployment (39%) 51 40 7 75 - 25 Inflation (44%) 30 60 9 35 - 65 Feel that the U.S. should be more forceful with the Soviet Union even if it would increase the chance of war (54%) 28 64 6 — Disagree (31%) 56 32 10 — Favor equal rights amendment (46%) 49 38 11 — Oppose equal rights amendment (35%) 26 68 4 — Family finances and political party Knew all along (41%) 47 50 2 44 - 55 During the primaries (13%) 30 60 8 57 - 42 During conventions (8%) 36 55 7 51 - 48 Since Labor Day (8%) 30 54 13 49 - 49 In week before election (23%) 38 46 13 49 - 47 Again, much of the styling for this supertable is unique to this individual table. For that styling, see table#groups-voting styles. Those styles aside, Tufte CSS supertables arrange a table, its heading, and its explanatory paragraph using a div of class supertable-wrapper . It uses the classes divider and psedoparagraph-heading on table rows and table cell elements respectively to break up the data into logical chunks. The footer class is used on the final td to source the data. It's not specific to supertables, but this table also needed centered columns of right-aligned numbers. Out of the box HTML and CSS are bad at this, so we must reach for a kludge made of extra markup: div s of class number that wrap the data in each cell. For example, in this table we have number number2 for a centered column containing right-aligned numbers of at most 2 digits and number number7 to center the "Carter/Ford in 1976" column. This solution is less elegant than we would like, but it seems to be the best option. Here's an example of a table that makes use of the full width of the viewport, highlighting of critical data points, omitting of irrelevant and repetitive data, and an alternative approach to table heading underlines. Remember, the basic principle that Tufte emphasizes is to use few lines, typically only under table headings, and to make them very thin. This optimizes the data-ink ratio, thereby reducing distractions in the table. If the data is arranged and aligned properly, most border lines within a table become unnecessary. This table is from page 44 of Visual Explanations : Flight Date Temperature °F Erosion incidents Blow-by incidents Damage index Comments 51-C 01.24.85 53° 3 2 11 Most erosion any flight; blow-by; back-up rings heated. 41-B 02.03.84 57° 1 4 Deep, extensive erosion. 61-C 01.12.86 58° 1 4 O-ring erosion on launch 2 weeks before Challenger. 41-C 04.06.84 63° 1 2 O-rings showed signs of heating, but no damage. 1 04.12.81 66° 0 Coolest (66°) launch without O-ring problems. 6 04.04.83 67° 0 51-A 11.08.84 67° 0 51-D 04.12.85 67° 0 5 11.11.82 68° 0 3 03.22.82 69° 0 2 11.12.81 70° 1 4 Extent of erosion not fully known. 9 11.28.83 70° 0 41-D 08.30.84 70° 1 4 59-G 06.17.85 70° 0 7 06.18.83 72° 0 8 08.30.83 73° 0 51-B 04.29.85 75° 0 61-A 10.30.85 75° 2 4 No erosion. Soot found behind two primary O-rings. 51-I 08.27.85 76° 0 61-B 11.26.85 76° 0 41-G 10.05.84 78° 0 51-J 10.03.85 79° 0 06.27.82 80° ? O-ring condition unknown; rocket casing lost at sea. 51-F 07.29.85 81° 0 Highlighting of important data points is accomplished with the danger class on the relevant td . It overrides the default table font in order to match its (print) source, and—as usual—column widths and specifics of vertical alignment are handled uniquely for this table id. Table labels are margin notes with an additional table-label class, placed inside a p tag preceding the table . That class adds a top margin so the margin note matches the table header. Multiple sidenotes for a table, or sidenotes that must align to a specific height relative to the table, require custom styling and attention. Be aware that table labels are of limited utility for many tables, since they are often troublesome or awkward on small screens. This table, from page 59 of Tufte's Beautiful Evidence , also makes use of the table-wrapper-small class to contain its thin width. ⊕ This is a table label. Use it for sourcing, describing how the table data was gathered, or to display related figures. See page 59 of Tufte's Beautiful Evidence for an example of sidenoting a table. median number of entries in data matrices for statistical graphics in various publications, 2003 Science >1000 Nature >700 New York Times 120 Wall Street Journal 112 Frankfurter Allgemaine Zeitung 98 New England Journal of Medicine 53 Asahi 40 Financial Times 40 The Economist 32 Le Monde 28 28 books on PowerPoint presentations (1997-2003) 12 Pravda (1982) 5 Code Technical jargon, programming language terms, and code samples are denoted with the code class, as I've been using in this document to denote HTML. Code needs to be monospace for formatting purposes and to aid in code analysis, but it must maintain its readability. To those ends, Tufte CSS apes GitHub's font selection, which degrades gracefully along the monospace spectrum from the elegant but rare Consolas all the way to good old reliable Courier. Extended code examples should use a pre tag with class code . This adds control over indentation and overflow as well: ;; Some code examples in Clojure. This is a comment. ;; applying a function to every item in the collection (map tufte-css blog-posts) ;;;; if unfamiliar, see http://www.lispcast.com/annotated-map ;; side-effecty loop (unformatted, causing text overflow) - from https://clojuredocs.org/clojure.core/doseq (doseq [[[a b] [c d]] (map list (sorted-map :1 1 :2 2) (sorted-map :3 3 :4 4))] (prn (* b d))) ;; that same side-effecty loop, formatted (doseq [[[a b] [c d]] (map list (sorted-map :1 1 :2 2) (sorted-map :3 3 :4 4))] (prn (* b d))) ;; If this proselytizing has worked, check out: ;; http://howistart.org/posts/clojure/1 ImageQuilts Tufte CSS provides support for Edward Tufte and Adam Schwartz's ImageQuilts . Some have ragged edges, others straight. Include these images just as you would any other figure . This is an ImageQuilt surveying Chinese calligraphy, placed in a full-width figure to accomodate its girth: Here is an ImageQuilt of 47 animal sounds over and over, in a figure constrained to the main text region. This quilt has ragged edges, but the image itself is of course still rectangular. Other Tools Tufte CSS attempts only to cover some basic "Tuftean" ideas, providing one possible set of defaults, using cascading stylesheets. Therefore many of the more interesting techniques he points to are far outside the scope of this project. Graphing data, interactive data visualizations, and non-traditional text formats are fantastic tools that aren't covered by Tufte CSS. Here is a short and incomplete overview of tools that can help accomplish a few Tufte-like techniques. Sparklines are awesome, and can be created in a variety of ways. People are making them with plain javascript , jQuery , d3.js , and HighCharts . Evaluate those solutions to see which is most appropriate for your needs. If you need to display mathematical symbols and equations, MathJax is supposed to be good. Finally, I'd like to note some other approaches to the ideas that Tufte CSS addresses. A diverse design ecosystem is healthy, and good for design evolution. Maybe what they do will inspire you to create the right solution for your situation. The Vulture has an interesting way of handling sidenote-type content. Sidenoted text is underlined (implemented as a border, mind you) and await mouseover, at which time they reveal a text aside on the left margin. On small screens the mouseover is dropped in favor of a pop-up-like textbox. This keeps marginalia out of the eye's way when it's not needed. However, one should have qualms about functionality that relies on mouseover: it is useless on touchscreens and distracting elswhere. In this article about Brazilian jiu-jitsu , Grantland experiments with rich marginalia. Mousing over a linkified person's name brings to life a navigable family tree. This is a great example of how a digital reading experience can do so much more than mere print. Although Tufte CSS doesn't follow all of its prescriptions, Butterick's Practical Typography is valuable for its thoughts on designing text for the web. Bret Victor has published some vintage computer science talks and papers, like this one by Alan Kay , that have a Tufte-CSS feel. """@en ; dc:title "Tufte CSS" ; tags:associatedTag tags:css, tags:margin, tags:text, tags:tufte ; rdfs:comment "This is a web page. A technical or academic document (moderate)."@en .  Your Pizza's Cold? Blame Your Food App — Not Your Courier — Back :: 1388 11 postmates delivery doordash deliver @prefix annot: <http://www.w3.org/2000/10/annotation-ns#> . @prefix bel: <http://purl.org/net/bel-epa/ont/2007/7/rathaus> . @prefix dbpedia: <http://dbpedia.org/resource/> . @prefix dc: <http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/> . @prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> . @prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> . @prefix geo: <http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#> . @prefix prism: <http://prismstandard.org/namespaces/1.2/basic#> . @prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> . @prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> . @prefix tags: <http://www.holygoat.co.uk/owl/redwood/0.1/tags/> . @prefix xml: <http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace> . @prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> . <https://medium.com/backchannel/your-pizza-s-cold-blame-your-food-app-not-your-courier-9d1d123ad2e8> rdfs:label "Your Pizza's Cold? Blame Your Food App — Not Your Courier — Backchannel — Medium"@en ; dbpedia:Flesch-Kincaid_Readability_Test 57 ; dbpedia:Gunning-Fog_Index 11 ; dbpedia:Vocabulary 291 ; prism:wordCount 1388 ; dc:date "Sat, 14 Nov 2015 17:31:11 GMT"@en ; dc:description " Your Pizza's Cold? Blame Your Food App — Not Your Courier I've been delivering for Postmates and DoorDash, but glitches in their apps have created unnecessary buckets of my sweat. At 9:39 p.m. on a recent Tuesday night, I was biking straight up one of San Francisco's famous hills, glasses sliding down my nose and a shiny layer of moisture coating my skin. I had someone's18 salmon salad dangling from my handlebars and only two minutes left on the clock to deliver it, and I was nowhere near my destination. When I finally pumped my way to the top of the hill, a woman dressed in pajamas stepped out of her house to claim her meal. I'd earned $15 for the trouble — not bad — but I couldn't fathom why my on-demand food delivery app had chosen me for this journey. Why send a bike messenger on an impossible mission, to collect food and race three miles up an incredibly steep hill in a mere 45 minutes, when a car could have done the same without missing a beat? I'd been lured by the ads: \"Postmates at your fingertips!\" alongside DoorDash's \"Delightful Delivery!\" and Caviar's \"The best of San Francisco, delivered.\" My curiosity got the best of me, and I signed up for the first two as a bike messenger. As I soon learned, the apps' algorithms don't always remember that their couriers are humans, with muscles and feelings and all sorts of special needs. In a city as steep as San Francisco, small errors in dispatching can yield epic misadventures and some very late food. Note to Postmates: SF has hills, FYI I show up to my Postmates orientation with 10 other people. An instructor in his late twenties gives us a quick demo of the courier app. When the app assigns you an order, your phone vibrates and screeches like an old alarm clock. \"You'll have nightmares from this sound,\" our orientation leader assures us. We're handed a delivery bag and credit card, and released. I open the app for the first time a couple days later, and I quickly fall into an easy rhythm. Burritos from El Farolito to Mission Bay, two six-packs from Safeway to Rincon Hill. One night I do laps between Pancho Villa Taqueria and different customers' homes. At a startup incubator in the Twitter building, security is so tight that the elevators have no buttons. I love getting paid to see the city in full swing around me. But — those hills. The app dispatches bicyclists on short-distance orders but doesn't account for the grade of the streets. Major oversight! On one delivery I carried yet another salad from one hilly neighborhood to another, a saga that ended with me red-faced and dripping in sweat. After flexing so many muscles in transit, decoding a doorbell system, and climbing flights of stairs, I only had a 10-second interaction with the customer. After his door clicked shut, I checked to see how much I made. A$0 tip — really?  On my second day I accepted an order to buy beer. But when I arrived at the prescribed location, there was no store in sight, and I was standing in the middle of a high school campus in a dark residential neighborhood. Confused and slightly nervous, I called job support, and the order got cancelled. I still got paid a small amount for my wasted half hour, but I regretted the missed opportunity to earn more.  My worst hour of Postmates was an order from the Cheesecake Factory with a long prep time and no tip. I only made $4.80. My best hour of Postmates was working during a period with a$25-an-hour guaranteed minimum, when I made the promised $25. In all my time working for Postmates, not including that rare$25-an-hour windfall, I made an average of $16.23 per hour. Dear DoorDash, your hotspots don't work After the unpredictable pay of Postmates, I signed up for DoorDash, curious to see how it compares. The difference is immediately obvious: Dashers earn a flat fee of$12 per delivery and the customer always tips; it's usually around $3. This works out to a much steadier average hourly rate than with Postmates, where payouts vary based on time of day, distance, blitz pricing, and the whim of the customer. The second difference is that in San Francisco, dashers choose one hotspot from four neighborhoods with a high density of restaurants. Hotspots might sound like a welcome innovation over the free-for-all that was my Postmates experience, but I soon discovered that they caused me to waste even more time and energy. At 5:30 p.m., prime dinner delivery time, I headed to the Mission hotspot, opened up the app, and waited. The sun set, the fog came in, and- nothing. After half an hour standing on a corner watching people come home from work, I received an order to deliver Mediterranean food to Hayes Valley, a short ride and a quick$15. I never had that much downtime with Postmates.    Idle time isn't the only trouble. After every delivery, dashers are supposed to return to their hotspot to receive their next order. With Postmates, I would have already hopped to another job instead of biking back to my starting point.  Sometimes the app seemed to forget that I needed to bike back to the hotspot. After delivering Mexican food to a neighborhood on the west side of the city, the app immediately buzzed, asking me to pick up barbecue and deliver it to the east side within 32 minutes — a 4.5 mile ride. That seemed impossible. I texted customer service asking them to reassign the order. I didn't receive another order for the rest of my shift, leaving me to wonder if the city had suddenly gone quiet or if I was being passed over because I rejected the previous delivery.   An overlay of the author's delivery routes.   I traveled farther to complete DoorDash orders than I did for Postmates. For a sushi delivery to Noe Valley that I knew I wouldn't be able to complete on schedule, I called job support for help. The phone number led to a voice recording and then another voice recording saying the support method had changed and I should text customer service instead. More time gone from the clock, and I was still nowhere near Noe Valley. I pedaled hard to get to the restaurant, where I discovered the order was wrong and it would take 20 minutes to fix. Meanwhile, the app buzzed with another order to pick up a pizza and deliver it in another direction. \"There's no way that's going to happen,\" I thought to myself. My text pleas to customer service went unanswered, and anxiety and annoyance gave way to resignation and indifference. I would get there when I get there. I eventually delivered the sushi an hour after I was supposed to arrive, for a total of $15. Average hourly rate:$16.18.    I am now hyper-attuned to the army of couriers servicing these delivery start-ups — the black Postmates bags, the red DoorDash t-shirts, the special PEX debit cards, the app open on someone's phone. Despite its flaws, I ultimately found Postmates to be easier to bike for overall, though DoorDash is better for the downtown lunch rush. But a month from now, who knows?  Postmates sends an email almost every week announcing, \"We're growing like crazy!\" and advertising guaranteed minimum hourly wages for the week or bonuses if you complete a certain number of jobs. The competition is fierce. Once, after picking up an order for vegetarian Indian food, a woman stopped me: \"Do you work for Postmates? GrubHub is way better,\" she declared. On another day, when I was wearing the red DoorDash T-shirt, a stranger approached me and asked, \"Do you work for DoorDash? If you switch to Postmates, we'll each get $300.\" Given that these companies can't deliver food without us couriers, it's remarkable how unfinished their support services are. It's not like any one of these companies has a monopoly on the city's fleet of couriers — in San Francisco, Caviar, Sprig, and GrubHub are all signing up bike delivery workers, too. I'm clearly biased, but I believe the courier's experience is just as important as the customer's. The race to dominate food delivery may well be swung by how we, the couriers, vote with our wheels. Photographs by Anna Vignet Follow Backchannel: Twitter | Facebook "@en ; dc:title "Your Pizza's Cold? Blame Your Food App — Not Your Courier — Backchannel — Medium" ; tags:associatedTag tags:deliver, tags:delivery, tags:doordash, tags:postmates ; rdfs:comment "This is a web page. A technical or academic document (moderate)."@en .  Lime Text Editor :: 52 13 text lime software aims @prefix annot: <http://www.w3.org/2000/10/annotation-ns#> . @prefix bel: <http://purl.org/net/bel-epa/ont/2007/7/rathaus> . @prefix dbpedia: <http://dbpedia.org/resource/> . @prefix dc: <http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/> . @prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> . @prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> . @prefix geo: <http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#> . @prefix prism: <http://prismstandard.org/namespaces/1.2/basic#> . @prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> . @prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> . @prefix tags: <http://www.holygoat.co.uk/owl/redwood/0.1/tags/> . @prefix xml: <http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace> . @prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> . <http://limetext.org/> rdfs:label "Lime Text Editor"@en ; dbpedia:Flesch-Kincaid_Readability_Test 50 ; dbpedia:Gunning-Fog_Index 13 ; dbpedia:Vocabulary 19 ; prism:wordCount 52 ; dc:date "Sat, 14 Nov 2015 17:31:15 GMT"@en ; dc:description " Lime Text is a powerful and elegant text editor primarily developed in Go that aims to be a Free and open-source software successor to Sublime Text . Lime has a few frontends (QML, command-line interface) that can be selectively used with the pluggable backend. You can even develop your own and make it a drop-in replacement! "@en ; dc:title "Lime Text Editor" ; tags:associatedTag tags:aims, tags:lime, tags:software, tags:text ; rdfs:comment "This is a web page. A summary (difficult)."@en .  YouTube Music is here, and it's a game changer | The Verge :: 1792 13 youtube fowler rihanna songs @prefix annot: <http://www.w3.org/2000/10/annotation-ns#> . @prefix bel: <http://purl.org/net/bel-epa/ont/2007/7/rathaus> . @prefix dbpedia: <http://dbpedia.org/resource/> . @prefix dc: <http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/> . @prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> . @prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> . @prefix geo: <http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#> . @prefix prism: <http://prismstandard.org/namespaces/1.2/basic#> . @prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> . @prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> . @prefix tags: <http://www.holygoat.co.uk/owl/redwood/0.1/tags/> . @prefix xml: <http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace> . @prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> . <http://www.theverge.com/2015/11/12/9723496/youtube-music-app-offline-background> rdfs:label "YouTube Music is here, and it's a game changer | The Verge"@en ; dbpedia:Flesch-Kincaid_Readability_Test 54 ; dbpedia:Gunning-Fog_Index 13 ; dbpedia:Vocabulary 342 ; prism:wordCount 1792 ; dc:date "Sat, 14 Nov 2015 17:31:07 GMT"@en ; dc:description " YouTube is first and foremost a video portal, the world's largest and most popular online collection of moving images. But it's also a search engine, the world's second largest, trailing only its parent company, Google. And while the library on YouTube is made up of videos, in practice it has also become the world's largest streaming music service, used by more people than well-known names like Spotify or Apple when it comes to consuming songs and albums. Today, the video giant is rolling out a new app, YouTube Music , that attempts to capitalize on its dominance in this space. The app is free, and you can use it in free, ad-supported mode, but it becomes a lot more powerful and interesting if you pay for a YouTube Red subscription . The fact that YouTube Music and Google Play Music both exist is a touch confusing, especially since you can use them both for free, but they both add a bunch of features if you subscribe to YouTube Red. The best way to understand the new music app is to think of Facebook. Just as the social network broke out Messenger into its own so it could optimize the experience, YouTube now has dedicated apps for its three most popular verticals: kids, gaming, and music. You can use the app like a standard music service, searching for artists and playing individual songs or albums. It has licensed the same pool of roughly 30 million audio tracks you would find on its competitors. But the service is also optimized to present a vast collection of additional options — from live concert footage to karaoke tracks with embedded lyrics to instructional videos on how to play that bass line — which don't exist on any other music streaming service. \"If you search YouTube for 'call' the first thing that come up are 'Call Me Maybe' and Call of Duty ,\" says T. Jay Fowler, who heads up the development of music products at Youtube. The team tested a service last year, Music Key Beta, and the feedback from users was that they wanted \"an experience optimized for music.\" When you search in the new music app, you'll get only music-related results. Up top will be links to the official artist and album pages. Below that will be official music videos, with the wealth of related content below that. \"A mix of structured and organic results,\" explains Fowler. \"It's kind of a hybrid of browse and search.\" \"We wanted to make something uniquely YouTube.\" Before coming to YouTube, Fowler helped to found MOG , a widely praised music service that never achieved the same consumer traction as its rivals. \"It was the Betamax of music services,\" Fowler says with a wry chuckle.\" With this app, he wanted to create an experience that was low touch but high reward, something that would appeal to a broad audience, and more importantly to a group of consumers distinct from those who have already signed up for a streaming music subscription. \"I didn't want to add in features so we could check a box just because another service has that feature,\" said Fowler. \"We wanted to make something uniquely YouTube.\" The app doesn't try to replicate the full-featured nature of Google Play Music. You cannot, for example, create playlists. Instead YouTube music creates a daily playlist for you, \"My Mix,\" which combines tracks you've listened to, tracks you've liked, and some new stuff it thinks you might like to discover. You can search and listen to any music for free, with ads. If you're a YouTube Red subscriber, the ads go away and you get power features, for example that My Mix playlist is automatically saved for offline playback. The goal, says Fowler, is to give you something that will be ready and waiting when that subway door closes and you realize you've forgotten to prepare your entertainment but are no longer connected to the internet. \"A lot of people think of YouTube as a place you come to consume, lean forward, and then go someplace else, but we want people to have those leanback sessions,\" says Fowler. \"It's important for people to understand that this experience, when unlocked with Red, is deeply portable.\" In place of control, you get convenience. The app will also offer up a couple genre-specific playlists based on your taste. That morning, for example, it had given Fowler a Post-Punk mix. He was particularly fond of a video it gave him from the band Low. As a former record store clerk from the Minneapolis area, Fowler is very familiar with the group, but had never heard their cover of the Rihanna hit \"Stay.\" Below that video, the app recommended the Rihanna original, then other songs and live concerts by Low, including a cover of \"Stay\" they performed at the Pitchfork Music Festival. \"It's smart enough to realize that people might want to see the original, but that the person who likes this is probably more interested in hearing other songs from Low, not Rihanna.\" Making the leap From Low to Rihanna and back again When you're on an artist page, Rihanna for example, you can browse through all her available albums and singles, just as you would on Spotify or Apple Music. You can listen to a full album, and it will play the video when one exists, and use cover art as a placeholder when one does not. If you subscribe to YouTube Red, you can play this music in the background, and choose to play it audio only if you want to save your battery and limit data consumption. If you're in the mood for something a little less structured, you can use the Rihanna track as the seed to kick off an infinite playlist, essentially Rihanna radio, that will cue up related songs. YouTube Music has a neat feature here, familiar to users of Rdio, that lets you adjust the variety. You can pick a station that plays mostly Rihanna and closely related artists, or one that starts with Rihanna but goes off into a more eclectic and adventurous selection from there. A slider to adjust your stream's variety Things can get complicated when it comes to artists whose work was mostly made in the pre-video days. You can play through every album by Harry Nilsson, but it won't show videos for any songs, only cover art. On Nilsson's profile page, it does show you some videos that exist on YouTube, including this stunning live performance of \"Everybody's Talking.\" Unfortunately it won't sync that video up with the song when you play it from an album, because it isn't part of the catalog YouTube licensed from the labels. YouTube, like Spotify, has a big built-in advantage when it comes to personalization and recommendation. Over the last decade, users have made hundreds of millions of playlists, an explicit act of curation that allows YouTube's machine learning algorithms to understand what songs sound good together and what tracks belong in a genre-specific playlist. Along with input from users and structured metadata added by the music labels, \"we're a search engine so we have lots of data sources and pointers from the open web,\" says Fowler. YouTube also has a small human curation staff. Their job is to build playlists, but also to check up on what the algorithms have created, trying to ensure nobody has that \"uh oh\" moment Jimmy Iovine described when praising Apple's human-centric approach to playlisting. \"We do a lot of quality evaluations,\" says Fowler. \"Because when someone uses your service and asks for a certain style of music, when they expect something to play, that is an important contract you have fulfill.\" Along with the personalized playlists, the app has a tab called trending that will show you the most popular songs on YouTube, the fast-rising stars, and the unknowns the curation team thinks will be big in the near future. The goal is to build playlists \"that help our users understand what is culturally relevant,\" says Fowler. I've been using YouTube Red for a couple weeks and definitely feel it's worth the$10 a month. I download a few clips to watch each morning on my subway commute to and from work and relish the ad-free experience. I've also been able to enjoy a few broadcasters from gamers I like as audio only while doing chores around the house, essentially converting the clips to podcasts by enabling the background play feature.       The one feature I really find lacking in Music is the ability to make playlists, but I know that when it comes to music services I'm hungry for power features that don't necessarily appeal to the masses, and the goal here is to capture that massive audience which is already using YouTube as its everyday music service. It seems like it would have been easy enough to include, but Fowler insisted that the goal was to create the simplest, most stripped-down experience for the start. Luckily YouTube Music recognizes that the key to a good offering these days is perfecting recommendation and discovery, and that doing it well requires using more than human editors, as Apple does. Fowler believes curation at scale, relying on a mix of humans and algorithms, is key to transforming a music app from a utility to an experience. \"I've been working in this industry for decades, I've built multiple music services. My favorite part about the evolution, it's no longer just a utility like an outlet, that you can plug into and have all music. You plug into it and it helps make you fall back in love with music, it guides you along.\" Services like Discover Weekly have begun producing some magical moments in my life, and I have high hopes that YouTube Music might be able to do the same.  YouTube, with a billion monthly users and global scale, is uniquely poised to help deliver that. \"The indigenous catalogs can be really unique. In Australia, 30 percent of the music is '90s alt rock, and that isn't consumed anywhere else. To say my hand-curated list will satisfy that population is foolish,\" says Fowler. \"It's admirable to think you can curate the world's music, but once you go global, to have local knowledge, it's best to give the power back to the user.\"  With the launch of the dedicated music app, YouTube has fundamentally changed the market for streaming music. For the last two years the value proposition was clear. Pay $9.99 a month for unlimited access to the same 30 million tracks, with a few exclusives or gaps here and there on certain services. Now you can pay$10 a month and get the world's biggest video library, ad free and offline, a well-built streaming music service with that stock catalog music, and a hybrid music video experience that is unlike anything else out there.   "@en ;
dc:title "YouTube Music is here, and it's a game changer | The Verge" ;
tags:associatedTag tags:fowler,
tags:rihanna,
tags:songs,
tags:youtube ;
rdfs:comment "This is a web page. A technical or academic document (difficult)."@en .


Too Many Requests :: 97 6 string avoid message requests
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<https://www.reddit.com/r/AskReddit/comments/3sqh0u/serious_actively_practicing_muslims_what_goes/> rdfs:label "Too Many Requests"@en ;
dbpedia:Flesch-Kincaid_Readability_Test 71 ;
dbpedia:Gunning-Fog_Index 6 ;
dbpedia:Vocabulary 24 ;
prism:wordCount 97 ;
dc:date "Sat, 14 Nov 2015 17:31:27 GMT"@en ;
dc:description " whoa there, pardner!  we're sorry, but you appear to be a bot and we've seen too many requests from you lately. we enforce a hard speed limit on requests that appear to come from bots to prevent abuse.  if you are not a bot but are spoofing one via your browser's user agent string: please change your user agent string to avoid seeing this message again.  please wait 3 second(s) and try again.  as a reminder to developers, we recommend that clients make no more than one request every two seconds to avoid seeing this message.  "@en ;
dc:title "Too Many Requests" ;
tags:associatedTag tags:avoid,
tags:message,
tags:requests,
tags:string ;
rdfs:comment "This is a web page. A blog entry or text from an email message (readable)."@en .


b2 - a classy weblog tool :: 1771 6 b2 comments michel wordpress
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<http://cafelog.com/> rdfs:label "b2 - a classy weblog tool"@en ;
dbpedia:Flesch-Kincaid_Readability_Test 76 ;
dbpedia:Gunning-Fog_Index 6 ;
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prism:wordCount 1771 ;
dc:date "Sat, 14 Nov 2015 17:30:58 GMT"@en ;
dc:description " [ This is a test blog, with posts about the development of b2, and comments ]  [ Bugs/suggestions ? Check the Forums ! ]  23.03.04   WordPress version 1.0.2 is now available for download . This is a bugfix release and fixes all known issues with the 1.0 series. The upcoming version of WordPress (available in nightly builds ) has sub-categories, advanced comment moderation, automatic image thumbnailing, and custom fields. All implemented with the elegance you've come to expect from WordPress. I'll post more about 1.2 when it's finished. matt @ 19:10:17 173 57 comments , 4 trackbacks , no pingback   29.01.04  I just wanted to let everyone know that the latest and greatest WordPress is now out. WordPress 1.0.1 takes all the amazing features of 1.0 (including real search-engine friendly permalinks, multiple categories, trackback on edit, comment moderation, and more) and fixes all the bugs and makes it faster. If you're feeling adventurous the nightly builds of version 1.1 has sub-categories and a few other improvements underway. — Matt  matt @ 05:03:36 585 36 comments , 1 trackback , no pingback   02.01.04  As they say on my island, Pace E Salute! (That's happy new year in Corsican.) michel v @ 01:58:24 457 26 comments , no trackback , no pingback   25.12.03  We wish you a merry Christmas! We wish you a merry Christmas! We wish you a merry Christmas! ... And [next week we'll wish you] a happy new year!  michel v @ 17:57:57 123 23 comments , 1 trackback , no pingback   22.12.03  Wow, its amazing I can still login to this...  You still have posting rights, heh. Just don't abuse them. - michel  Babymariah @ 00:45:58 406 5 comments , no trackback , no pingback   25.11.03  As you may know, spammers have started to invade blog comments, and this site has seen its share of it. While many developers are working on ways to prevent comment spam (I know there's some serious work going on on the WordPress side, and other blog tools seem to get solutions aswell), and until I can apply one of these automated ways on cafelog.com, I will have to silently check the comments and delete the spam, as I have done these past two months. So here's the policy:  If your comment definitely is spam, it is deleted.  If it looks or feels like spam, it is deleted. I don't care if your URL just happens to be cheap-ass-stuff.com or wowlookatgirlz.nu: if your comment is on topic but your URL leads to a site with a crappy URL and the site aims to sell something dodgy, tough luck. You should have commented without an URL, that's all: cafelog.com is not an advertising billboard.  If your comment is on a very old post, I may just delete it on sight. If it was a genuine on topic comment, blame yourself for commenting a post that no one is going to visit anymore, instead of bringing the issue on the support forums .  If your comment is a flame/insult, it is deleted.  This is not censorship, it's just keeping the spam out. So if you commented, and you don't see your comment anymore, you know what happened. Fortunately, if you read and understood this post you are not likely to be affected by this policy.  michel v @ 23:44:17 364 30 comments , 1 trackback , 1 pingback   03.11.03   NewsGator Technologies , makers of a great news aggregator for Outlook, released a posting plug-in for b2 , allowing NewsGator users to post directly to b2 from Outlook. Titles and categories are supported. If you are a NewsGator+b2 user, you can download the plugin on their website (it should also work with WordPress, b2evolution, b2++, or any b2-based blogware).  Note: This is a late post on my part, I'm sorry about it: the email about it had gotten shot as a false-positive by the spam filter -- proof that you should always check for false-positives in your email client! michel v @ 00:34:21 398 24 comments , no trackback , no pingback   17.10.03  Things have been so busy that I almost forgot to mention that a new version of WordPress is available . Upgrading to WordPress from b2 is easy and in addition to all of the great things in the latest release there are plenty of other features already . Development is very active and the first beta of our next release should be available within a week or so. Download WordPress from Sourceforge . matt @ 17:43:06 071 16 comments , no trackback , no pingback   10.10.03  Hello everyone. As some of you may be aware, a SQL injection vulnerability was reported and fixed in WordPress . As the same vulnerability effects all recent versions of b2, Michel asked me to put together a release for people who weren't ready to upgrade to WordPress yet and were still using b2. So b2 version 0.6.2.2 is available . The only change from the previous version is in blog.header.php where the vulnerable code was located. Thanks to Seth Woolley for reporting this issue responsibly. Be safe and upgrade as soon as possible. matt @ 07:32:36 647 34 comments , no trackback , 3 pingbacks   27.07.03  The Blogathon 2003 is over, congrats to all the participants especially those blogging with b2! Now go get some rest, you well deserved it! michel v @ 15:12:24 966 46 comments , 2 trackbacks , no pingback   06.06.03  Just wanted to wish Michel a very happy 24th birthday. Thank you so much for b2. The bloggin' world would not be the same without it. ^_^ PHP-Princess.net @ 18:42:13 112 42 comments , 4 trackbacks , 2 pingbacks   23.05.03  Problem: There's a security hole in gm-2-b2.php and blogger-2-b2.php in the 0.6.1 release.  Solution: Delete these files once your blog conversion is done, or edit them . A fixed release will come shortly, and the CVS will be updated. -- Ontopic:   Matt Mullenweg and Mike Little are leading the new WordPress branch of b2, that is going to become the new official branch once they get a release out. If you want to help with WordPress, don't hesitate to contact either of them!  This website will get a minimalist redesign soon. A lot of sections are going away, including the \"powered by b2\" list. That list hasn't been updated for months on end, and with only 592 weblogs it makes it look like b2 isn't used by as many weblogs as it really is. Judging from the emails I get and the forums' activity, I estimate there are around 2000 b2 weblogs. This is a great accomplishment for me, and for everyone who supported me and the project.  The \"recently updated b2\" lists will disappear from the main page and wait for a maintainer to get back on the front. If you feel that you're up to the task of processing emails to add websites to this list, please email me and I'll give you the keys to the list's admin section if I feel that you are serious enough.   Now for the offtopic banter:  I am still jobless. My evil plans to conquer the world, that kept me busy for the past months, have been put to an temporary halt. This is the cause of much troubles in my personal life.  I am slowly but steadily redesigning my own website. I'm not opening the doors until I have more than just a weblog to show for it. By the way, the redesign will be based on standards as usual, but will also look different on everyone's computer.  With some of the money that I made by taking over the world (a small piece of it, for starters), I bought a digital camera, and proceded to photograph various things. I hope to get better at it than I am at PHP.  The current state of RSS is scaring me.   Elvis says hi!    Now for some shameless promotion of my beginner photographs: michelv.deviantart.com ( gallery ) michel v @ 02:38:51 443 20 comments , 9 trackbacks , 6 pingbacks   17.03.03  Michel was last seen more than two months ago. A lot of people, like myself, is looking for him. If anyone has any information about him, please share it. In any case, please stop testing stuff here. Thanks! Ricardo @ 02:03:31 460 52 comments , 1 trackback , 1 pingback   06.11.02  While all browsers support Last-Modified and ETag headers properly, MSIE seems not, it wouldn't let you refresh a page generated by b2 0.6.1. And that sucks, I know. Here is the fix: clickie! (This fix will be included in the releases asap.) michel v @ 20:33:14 231 35 comments , 10 trackbacks , 1 pingback   05.11.02  b2 0.6.1 is out, waiting for you to download it! What's new:  TrackBack 1.1 (adds compatibility with newer MT versions' TrackBack).  RSS 1.0 (b2rdf.php) and 2.0 (b2rss2.php) feeds. For those who upgrade, writing to b2rss.xml is still supported but you're encouraged to just use b2rss.php.  b2 now generates Last-Modified and ETag headers based on your last post's date (very useful for aggregators).  Improved paged presentation when using next_post() and related tags.  Clearer PingBack excerpts  Various bugfixes, as usual.  Also, w.bloggar 3 is out too! michel v @ 01:27:22 435 35 comments , 5 trackbacks , 6 pingbacks   27.10.02  As some of you may have noticed, the calendar may show October 27th twice on some timezones. This bug is there because of daylight savings, but there's a fix for it ! (Needless to say, that fix will be in the next version.) michel v @ 00:12:26 341 13 comments , no trackback , 1 pingback   30.09.02  b2 v0.6 is out ! It halts a serie of pre-releases, fixing pretty much all the remaining bugs. As usual, downloads are on Sourceforge. What's new:  right-click bookmarklet for Windows IE users: just check your profile for this option  various bugfixes: no more pingback glitches, file upload dialog now checks for duplicate files (and renames them accordingly), ...  Now all the work has shifted to 1.0 ! By the way, there's no big difference between 0.6pre5 and 0.6, so you only need to upload the new files (except the empty config and your templates, of course). Update at 2:40 (gmt+1): There was a last-minute bug in this release, that I just fixed. For those who already downloaded 0.6, no need to re-download it, just apply this fix . michel v @ 00:13:42 342 13 comments , 11 trackbacks , 7 pingbacks   23.09.02  b2 v0.6pre5 is out ! Check out the b2 downloads on Sourceforge for the release. What's new:   TrackBack support ( not MT's standalone trackback)   Pingback support: Pingback is a new way to put the 'web' in 'weblogs', as it allows your blog to automatically notify other pingback-enabled blogs that you linked to them in an entry  some new template tags  many bugfixes  ...and more than could be listed  michel v @ 01:14:21 384 45 comments , 13 trackbacks , 16 pingbacks   19.09.02  I'm at a stage where I have to decide whether to support old versions of PHP, with all the tricks and limitations this would involve, or use new features from PHP 4.1.x and newer.  So I need you to answer this important poll about which PHP version you're using. Thanks in advance ! michel v @ 23:57:09 331 8 comments , no trackback , 9 pingbacks   17.09.02  Tim Conner just released version 1.3 of BlogApp , a Mac OS X blog client, now with support for the b2 API (note: you need a little tweak in b2 for that, that will be fixed in the next b2 release). I really wish I had a Mac with OS X  michel v @ 16:08:21 005 14 comments , no trackback , no pingback   "@en ;
dc:title "b2 - a classy weblog tool" ;
tags:associatedTag tags:b2,
tags:comments,
tags:michel,
tags:wordpress ;
rdfs:comment "This is a web page. An introductory or basic text (readable)."@en .


casual javascript :: 738 5 ƒ b xs zip
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<http://casualjavascript.com/javascript/es6/haskell/native/implementation/2015/11/12/haskell-in-es6-part-1.html> rdfs:label "casual javascript"@en ;
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prism:wordCount 738 ;
dc:date "Sat, 14 Nov 2015 17:31:13 GMT"@en ;
dc:description " This post is the first in a series that will be dedicated to implementating native versions of Haskell functions according to JavaScript ES6 standards. Full source can be found in this GitHub repo . You are more than welcome to contribute!  ƒ.comp   Function composition.    ( . )  ::  ( b  ->  c )  ->  ( a  ->  b )  ->  a  ->  c    /**  * Function composition  * @param ...fs functions to compose  * @return composed function  **/  comp :  (... fs )  =>  {  return  (... args )  =>  fs . reduceRight (  ( g ,  f )  =>  f . bind ( null ,  g (... args ))  )();  },   Examples   var  add  =  x  =>  x  +  x ,  pow  =  x  =>  x  *  x ,  inv  =  x  =>  1  /  x ;  var  comp  =  ƒ . comp ( add ,  pow ,  inv );  comp ( 1 );  // => 2  /**  * Explained:  * 1) inv 1 / 1 => 1  * 2) pow 1 * 1 => 1  * 3) add 1 + 1 => 2  **/  comp ( 4 );  // => 1/8   ƒ.flip    flip f takes its (first) two arguments in the reverse order of f .    flip  ::  ( a  ->  b  ->  c )  ->  b  ->  a  ->  c    /**  * Flip function arguments  * @param f function to flip  * @return f applied with args in reverse order  **/  ƒ . prototype . flip  =  f  =>  (... args )  =>  f (... args . reverse ());   Examples   var  add  =  ( a ,  b )  =>  a  /  b ,  flip  =  ƒ . flip ( add );  flip ( 10 ,  5 ));  // => 1/2  flip ( 1 ,  10 ));  // => 10   ƒ.until    until p f yields the result of applying f until p holds.    until  ::  ( a  ->  Bool )  ->  ( a  ->  a )  ->  a  ->  a    /**  * Applies a function which is passed as the second argument to  * the third argument and it comapares the result with the condition,  * if the condition evaluates to true, it prints the result, if not,  * it passes the result to the function and repeats the cycle as long  * as the condition is matched  * @param condition condition to be applied to f  * @param f function to match against  * @return result if condition is true else repeat cycle  **/  ƒ . prototype . until  =  ( condition ,  f )  =>  (... args )  =>  {  var  r  =  f (... args );  return  condition ( r )  ?  r  :  ƒ . until ( condition ,  f )( r );  };   Examples   var  condition  =  x  =>  x  >  100 ,  inc  =  x  =>  x  +  1 ,  until  =  ƒ . until ( condition ,  inc );  until ( 0 );  // => 101  condition  =  x  =>  x  ===  5 ;  until  =  ƒ . until ( condition ,  inc );  until ( 3 );  // => 5   List operations    head extracts the first element of a list, which must be non-empty.     last extracts the last element of a list, which must be finite and non-empty.     tail extracts the elements after the head of a list, which must be non-empty.     init returns all the elements of a list except the last one. The list must be non-empty.    head  ::  [ a ]  ->  a  last  ::  [ a ]  ->  a  tail  ::  [ a ]  ->  [ a ]  init  ::  [ a ]  ->  [ a ]    ƒ . prototype . head  =  ( x ,  ... xs )  =>  x ;  ƒ . prototype . last  =  (... xs )  =>  xs . slice ( - 1 );  ƒ . prototype . tail  =  ( x ,  ... xs )  =>  xs ;  ƒ . prototype . init  =  (... xs )  =>  xs . slice ( 0 ,  - 1 );   Examples   ƒ . head ( 5 ,  27 ,  3 ,  1 );  // => 5  ƒ . last ( 5 ,  27 ,  3 ,  1 );  // => 1  ƒ . tail ( 5 ,  27 ,  3 ,  1 );  // => [27, 3, 1]  ƒ . init ( 5 ,  27 ,  3 ,  1 );  // => [5, 27, 3]   Special folds    concat yields the concatenation of all the elements of a container of lists.     concatMap maps a function over all the elements of a container and concatenate the resulting lists.    concat  ::  Foldable  t  =>  t  [ a ]  ->  [ a ]  concatMap  ::  Foldable  t  =>  ( a  ->  [ b ])  ->  t  a  ->  [ b ]    ƒ . prototype . concat  =  (... xs )  =>  xs . reduce (( a ,  b )  =>  a . concat ( b ));  ƒ . prototype . concatMap  =  ( f ,  ... xs )  =>  ƒ . concat ( xs . map ( f ));   Examples   ƒ . concat ([ 5 ],  [ 27 ],  [ 3 ]);  // => [5, 27, 3]  ƒ . concatMap ( x  =>  'hi '  +  x ,  1 ,  [[ 2 ]],  3 );  // => ['hi 1', 'hi 2', 'hi 3']   ƒ.zip and ƒ.zipWith    zip takes two lists and returns a list of corresponding pairs. If one input list is short, excess elements of the longer list are discarded.\"     zipWith generalises zip by zipping with the function given as the first argument, instead of a tupling function. For example, zipWith (+) is applied to two lists to produce the list of corresponding sums.\"    zip  ::  [ a ]  ->  [ b ]  ->  [( a ,  b )]  zipWith  ::  ( a  ->  b  ->  c )  ->  [ a ]  ->  [ b ]  ->  [ c ]    /**  * Zip two arrays into a list of n-ples  * @param ...xs arrays to zip  * @return a list of of n-ples  **/  ƒ . prototype . zip  =  (... xs )  =>  {  var  r  =  [],  nple  =  [],  length  =  Math . min ( null ,  ... xs . map ( x  =>  x . length ));  for  ( var  i  =  0 ;  i  <  length ;  i ++ )  {  xs . forEach (  x  =>  nple . push ( x [ i ])  );  r . push ( nple );  nple  =  [];  }  return  r ;  };  /**  * Generalises zip by zipping with the function given  * as the first argument, instead of a tupling function.  * @param op function to zip with  * @param ...xs arrays to zip  * @return array zipped with the op function  **/  ƒ . prototype . zipWith  =  ( op ,  ... xs )  =>  ƒ . zip (... xs ). map (  ( x )  =>  x . reduce ( op )  );   Examples   var  a  =  [ 0 ,  1 ,  2 ],  b  =  [ 3 ,  4 ,  5 ],  c  =  [ 6 ,  7 ,  8 ];  ƒ . zip ( a ,  b );  // => [[0, 3], [1, 4], [2, 5]]  ƒ . zipWith (( a ,  b )  =>  a  +  b ,  a ,  b ,  c );  // => [9, 12, 15]   "@en ;
dc:title "casual javascript" ;
tags:associatedTag tags:b,
tags:xs,
tags:zip,
tags:ƒ ;
rdfs:comment "This is a web page. A blog entry or text from an email message (easy)."@en .


Freeciv founded 20 years ago today! | Freeciv-web blog :: 1530 9 freeciv peter claus code
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dc:description "    The Freeciv project was founded on November 14 1995, by Peter Joachim Unold, Claus Leth Gregersen and Allan Ove Kjeldbjerg. The three Danish students created this open source strategy game while studying computer science at Aarhus University. Today, 20 years later we have interviewed the founders of the project to find out about the early history of Freeciv.     A screenshot of Freeciv 1.0 the way it looked in 1995. Freeciv looks quite different today!    – Why did you decide to create Freeciv as an open source game?    Peter: As I recall it, we had compiled a range of networking games for X which we played in the CS lab of the university. At some point we fetched OpenCiv – a networked Civ clone written in Python. We quickly rejected the game because of terrible performance. There and then we decided to create our own version written in C. I believe we were primarily driven by the wish to actually play a networked Civilization ourselves.  Why open source it? I think we considered writing the game a learning project and a hobby. Besides the entire culture around unix gaming was open source at that time. Distributing a game as a binary would be nasty. In our lab we were using SunOS/Solaris/HPUX/Irix. Can't actually remember that we had Linux as a target at that time. Source code really was the only realistic distribution form at that time. Only exception would be the Doom binary which appeared in these years.   Claus: We didn't target Linux in the beginning, we did all of the code in the basements of DAIMI, which at the time didn't have any Linux machines. The Silicon Graphics machines running Irix was my favorite OS at the time, and they were really good workstations for developing games.    The founders of the Freeciv project today. Claus describes the photo like this: “The pretty one in the center is me, Allan is on my left and Peter is on the right.”    – When was the Freeciv project founded, in your opinion?    Peter: I remember we pulled an all-nighter as we worked on the first public release(version 0.8beta I believe). We had invited some friends to join us in the CS-lab to play-test and the game would crash for various reasons. We would fix the bugs, re-compile and have everybody restart their client. Tons of issues surfaced and I think we worked through to the early morning before we did the beta release.   – What was the reaction to the initial releases?    Peter: Highly positive. Checking my mail archive I find congratulations, patches and constructive bug reports from the early days. People would mail us save-files that would demonstrate a problem or feature requests – sometimes with a ready implementation.   – Why was it the three of you specifically who created Freeciv? How did you first meet?    Peter: The three of us were studying Computer Science and spend a lot of time in the computer labs. This was a time when you had the choice between using your x286 based PC at home with a 28.8 baud modem or go to the lab and use a Unix workstation with high speed Internet. The result was that the labs were often full with students working on more or less study related projects. The three of us were part of a larger group of students, who had started studying in 1990 / 1991.   Claus: We had great access to the Internet 5 years before anyone else and we used the hardware for all the stuff we found interesting, which was out of scope for what the faculty found was good usage for the hardware. We never got any credits what so far academically.  The irony of it all is that last year when i had a couple of computer science applying for a job, they told me that they had assignments of doing bits and parts of a civilization clone at the university as part of the studies, so i guess that the university got smarter in the meantime.   Peter: I think one could say that we were part of a bigger CS and EE students culture throughout Europe and the US. Many projects were build in similar lab environments. I think it was a pretty unique time as so many geeks would almost be forced to go to these \"coworking spaces\" to get access to good internet and workstations.   – How important to the early success of Freeciv was being included in Debian and other Linux distributions?    Peter: I think that happened after our involvement: However I'm quite sure it was essential for reaching the next distribution level after the \"compile everything yourself\" crowd.   Claus: No that was in our time, we were really happy about it, I have no clue how important it was, we had no sort of stastistics.   -How long did it take from you decided to develop Freeciv until the game was playable? Can you share something about what you did in this time-period, and how much time was spent on Freeciv in this time?    Peter: We were probably not studying very hard in those days. I was mostly responsible for the client code and remember struggling with Athena widgets and X shared memory extentions and what not. I vaguely remember spending time around xmas working on the packet serialization code.   Claus: i remember that all major concepts, world generation, cities, buildings units, research, combat was actually done quite fast. But after that there was a long period where i was interested in getting the rules right, i realized there was a lot more detail to it than i had expected. Also due to the limited datastructures, we had many bugs to iron out. I already had some of the code like the map generator and the save game read/write code so it wasn't done entirely from scratch.   – Do you have any stories about the founding and initial development phase of the game that you want to share?    Peter: During the development we were sponsored by the math department of the university(though they were not aware of it). We figured out a way to \"hack\" the coke-machine resulting in 3-4 bottles for the price of one.    Photo of Claus Leth Gregersen from LinuxForum 2001 in Copenhagen.    -The source code of Freeciv 1.0a can be found on Github here. Perhaps you would take a quick look at this code and see if you have any opinions of this early version today?    Claus: We left Freeciv at around 1.7 if i recall it correctly, at that point we had implemented the main features and rules of civilization. I've always been very pragmatic when developing, not that i don't like a good architecture, but it's the features and stability that's always been the main drivers for me. We did some experiments with macros for iterating the data structures, which was a pain with and without.   – What do you think of Freeciv today, 20 years later?    Peter: I installed the current version on my Workstation(running Fedora) and it looks pretty damn great. Picked \"Denmark\" as my nation as was happy to see that my first city was named Aarhus and not Copenhagen Seriously the game plays really nice and it's obvious that much energy and talent has been put into improving the game after it left our hands. Really demonstrate the power of Open Source.   Claus: What was really cool back then was that our users didn't just complain about bugs, they also sent us patches with fixes. Also take a look at the contributors list, it's crazy long, so many people has cared to put time and effort into putting their own fingerprint on the game. I don't think they just did it to scratch their itches, but it was more to be part of the development. Freeciv was one of the biggest early successes for the bazaar development model.   – Anything you would like to say to Sid Meier if you ever got the chance?  Peter: Claus?   Claus: Thanks for all the great games! I've been a great fan of Sid i spent most of 1987 playing Sid Meier's Pirates!, which to me is an epic classic. The game covers a lot of aspects, and the balance was impressive you could play a single game for days without getting boring. Pirates and later Civilization had a great use of the english language, phrases like: \"Consequences, schmonsequences\" really says nails it. These touches has for me has always been more important than fancy graphics.     So on November 14 2015, we would like to take the opportunity to thank Peter Joachim Unold, Claus Leth Gregersen and Allan Ove Kjeldbjerg for founding the Freeciv project. Since they founded the Freeciv project, a large number of people have contributed to the project. For more information about the early history of Freeciv, these pages on the wiki are relevant: In the Beginning and Timeline . Today you can also play Freeciv in your browser with Freeciv-web .  Feel free to leave your comments in the section below. Here are some more screenshots of early Freeciv:      Screenshot of Freeciv 1.0: Behold the magnificent 1990s-era graphics.     Freeciv 1.0 city dialog screen. This was state-of-the-art X Athena Widgets in 1995.       Today: Screenshot of current version of Freeciv-web playable in a browser at play.freeciv.org More screenshots of the current version of Freeciv can be seen here .     "@en ;
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What the state of emergency means in France, where it's been dec :: 1457 13 emergency cf loi decree
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dc:description """  State of emergency in France   Sources   Process   When can it be declared?  State of emergency can only be declared on part or the totality of the Republic's territory in the following circumstances:   An imminent peril resulting from grave disturbances to public order, or  Events presenting, by their nature or gravity, the character of a public calamity   cf. Loi n°55-385, art. 1    How / how long  State of emergency is declared by decree of the cabinet of ministers.  It can only be extended beyond 12 days by passing a law.  cf. Loi n°55-385, art. 2   The law authorizing the extension of the state of emergency fixes its definitive duration.   Example: Algeria, 6 months (now revoked)   cf. Loi n°55-385, art. 3   If the government resigns, or if the National Assembly is dissolved, the law authorizing the extension is void 15 days after this event.  cf. Loi n°55-385, art. 4    Consequences   Movement of people, protected zones  Prefects may:   set up curfews to prohibit people or vehicles from roaming specific places at times fixed by decree  establish "secure / protected zones", where the stay of persons is regulated  prohibit "any person seeking to hinder, in any manner whatsoever, the actions of the government" from staying in part or the totality of their department    cf. Loi n°55-385, art. 5    House arrest  The Minister of the Interior may put under house arrest or restrain to a given city anyone "whose actions may be seen as harmful to public safety and order".  House arrest must allow those affected by it to live in a city or immediately near a city.  In no case may house arrest have for effect the creation of detention camps for the persons mentioned earlier.  The administrative authority shall take all necessary measure to ensure the wellbeing of persons under house arrest during the state of emergency.  cf. Loi n°55-385, art. 6    Closure of public places  The Minister of the Interior or the prefects may "order the temporary closure of theaters, pubs and meeting places" and "meetings of nature to cause or maintain disorder"  cf. Loi n°55-385, art. 8    Weapon forfeiture  The Minister of the Interior may "order the return of first-, fourth- and fifth-class weapons." (cf. Annex 1: Weapon classification in France )  Fifth-class weapons shall be exchanged for a receipt, and every measure shall be taken so that they may be given back to their owners in the state they were surrendered in.  cf. Loi n°55-385, art. 9    Searches & press  By express provision, the Minister of the Interior and the prefects may:   order homes to be searched "day or night"  "take all measures to ensure control of the press and radio."   The searches can be done without the supervision of a judge.   N.B. This needs to be explicitly 'enabled' via decree. So far, the November 14 decree n°2015-1475 hasn't opted into these particular measures.   cf. Loi n°55-385, art. 11    Military jurisdiction  Military jurisdiction, via an accompanying decree, may "assign to themselves crimes and offenses related to them".  This priority ends when the state of emergency ceases, but the cases they claimed remain theirs afterwards.   N.B. This needs to be explicitly 'enabled' via decree. So far, the November 14 decree n°2015-1475 hasn't opted into these particular measures.   cf. Loi n°55-385, art 12    Punishments  Refusal to comply with any of the measures described in articles 5, 6, 8, 9 and 11 (paragraph 2) of law n°55-385 is punishable either by:   imprisonment of up to two months  a 3750e fine  or both   cf. Loi n°55-385, art. 13    Recourse  Anyone targeted by measures described in articles 5 and 6 of law n°55-385 (defining the state of emergency) can ask for the measure to be reversed. Their request is submitted to a consultative commission containing delegates from the designated department council.  The composition, choosing mode, and governing rules of the commission shall be fixed by a decree in State Council.  The same persons may submit a recourse for abuse of power to the relevant administrative court. That court will have to settle within the month the recourse has been submitted. In case of appeal, the decision of the State Council shall intervene in the three months of the appeal.  Should the jurisdictions mentioned above fail to rule within the deadlines set by the previous paragraph, execution of the measures taken in application of articles 5 or 6 shall cease.  cf. Loi n°55-385, art. 7    History  Since 1955 a state of emergency has been decreed six times:   In 1955 in Algeria due to independentist unrest   In 1958 due to the uprising in Algeria   In 1961 after the Generals' putsch (invocation of article 16 from April 23 to September 29, 1961  In 1984 in New Caledonia due to independentist troubles  During the 2005 civil unrest in France President Jacques Chirac declared a state of emergency on November 8, 2005. It was extended for three months on November 16 by the Parliament, which was dominated by the UMP majority. On December 10 France's highest administrative body, the Council of State, ruled that the three-month state of emergency decreed to guarantee calm following unrest was legal. It rejected a complaint from 74 law professors and the Green party , declaring that the conditions that led to the unrest (which began on October 27), the rapid spread of violence, and the possibility that it could recur justified the state of emergency. The complaint challenged the state of
emergency's necessity and said it compromised fundamental liberties.  In 2015, following a series of shootings and explosions . See decree n° 2015-1475 from November 14th 2015, declaring state of emergency     Source: Wikipedia / State of Emergency: France    Annexes   Annex 1: Weapon classification in France    1st category : Semi-automatic handguns with a caliber greater than 7.65 mm, semi-automatic rifles or repeating guns ? designed for military use.   4th category : handguns not included in the first category, some long guns, smooth-bore rifles and pump shotguns   5th category : other long guns that aren't in the fourth category like smooth-bore hunting rifles or shotguns with rifled barrels.    Source: Arme: Catégories d'usage + comment by @SeanJA    Annex 2: Law on the Freedom of the Press of 29 July 1881  In place of the confusing mass of legislation that preceded it, the Press Law established a number of basic principles. Publishing was liberalised, with the law requiring only that publishers present their names to the authorities and deposit two copies of every work.  The authorities were denied the power to suppress newspapers and the offence of délits d'opinion (crimes of opinion, or types of prohibited speech) was abolished. This had previously enabled prosecutions of critics of the government, monarchy and church, or of those who argued for controversial ideas on property rights.  The scope of libel was severely reduced, with the criteria for defamation being much more tightly defined. A limited number of "press offences" was retained, including outraging public morals, and insulting high-ranking public officials including the President of the Republic, heads of foreign states and ambassadors. The law also provided a right of reply for persons to respond to articles in which they were featured.  In addition, the law regulates advertising and permits property owners to forbid the posting of advertisements on their properties. References to the law are frequently seen on French walls where signs proclaim "Defense d'afficher - loi du 29 Juillet 1881" ("posters forbidden - law of 29 July 1881").   Source: Wikipedia / Law on the Freedom of the Press of 29 July 1881    Annex 3: French government communiqué, 14 November 2015  The council of ministers, summoned by the President of the Republic, assembled on November the 14th at midnight. According to the report of the Prime minister, the Minister of the Interior, and the Attorney General, a decree declaring the state of emergency has been adopted. It takes immediate effect on the entirety of French and Corsican territories. It allows among other things to limit the circulation of persons and to set up zones of protection and security.  A second decree has also been adopted to set up reinforced measures in all the cities in the Ile-de-France region . These dispositions allow putting any person whose activity is dangerous under house arrest, the temporary closure of theaters, weapons forfeiture and the ability to proceed with administrative searches.  Furthermore, the President of the Republic has immediately decided to restore border control . The customs service are mobilized towards this goal as well.  Schools and universities will be closed Saturday November 14th in Île-de-France and school trips will be cancelled.  Hospitals are on high alert. The Orsan plan has been set off.  The crisis cell for help to victims of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, of Justice, and Health, along with the police authority, has been activated.  A defence council has been summoned this saturday at 9AM. Already 1500 additional military troops have been mobilized. The President of the Republic will stay in Paris and won't be participating to the G20 summit . He will be represented by the Minister of Foreign Affairs and international development, and by the Minister of Finances and public accounting.   Source: elysee.fr   """@en ;
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Gene Amdahl, Pioneer of Mainframe Computing, Dies at 92 - The Ne :: 1242 12 amdahl ibm computers series
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dc:description "   Photo   Gene Amdahl at home in Saratoga, Calif., in 1979. As a young computer scientist at IBM, Dr. Amdahl, who has a formula named after him, played a crucial role in the development of the System/360 series.  Credit Mickey Pfleger     Gene Amdahl, a trailblazer in the design of IBM's mainframe computers, which became the central nervous system for businesses large and small throughout the world, died on Tuesday at a nursing home in Palo Alto, Calif. He was 92.     His wife, Marian, said the cause was pneumonia. He had been treated for Alzheimer's disease for about five years, she said.  Dr. Amdahl rose from South Dakota farm country, where he attended a one-room school without electricity, to become the epitome of a generation of computer pioneers who combined intellectual brilliance, managerial skill and entrepreneurial vigor to fuel the early growth of the industry.  As a young computer scientist at International Business Machines Corporation in the early 1960s, he played a crucial role in the development of the System/360 series, the most successful line of mainframe computers in IBM's history. Its architecture influenced computer design for years to come.  The 360 series was not one computer but a family of compatible machines. Computers in the series used processors of different speeds and power, yet all understood a common language.  This allowed customers to purchase a smaller system knowing they could migrate to a larger, more powerful machine if their needs grew, without reprogramming the application software. IBM's current mainframes can still run some System/360 applications.  The system was announced at IBM's annual shareholders meeting on April 7, 1964, in Endicott, N.Y., a village near Binghamton where the company had opened a facility early in the 20th century.  At the meeting, Thomas J. Watson Jr., then chairman and chief executive, singled out Dr. Amdahl as the \"father\" of the new computer. \"I remember it very clearly,\" Marian Amdahl said in an interview. \"Gene was so proud of that.\"  Michael J. Flynn, a computer scientist at Stanford University and former colleague of Dr. Amdahl's at IBM, said the 360 series \"set the design philosophy for computers for the next 50 years, and to this day it's still out there, which is incredible.\"  \"This same instruction set,\" he added, \"is still bringing in billions of dollars for IBM.\"  Dr. Amdahl is remembered at IBM as an intellectual leader who could get different strong-minded groups to reach agreement on technical issues.  \"By sheer intellectual force, plus some argument and banging on the table, he maintained architectural consistency across six engineering teams,\" said Frederick P. Brooks Jr., a computer scientist who was the project manager of the System/360 and is now at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.   Photo   The System/360 series, the most successful line of mainframe computers in IBM's history.  Credit Jim McKnight/Associated Press.    Dr. Amdahl's business instincts and ambitions manifested themselves in 1970, when he left IBM to build a company to rival it. At the time, the market for mainframe computers belonged almost exclusively to IBM.  With funding from Fujitsu, he formed the Amdahl Corporation, setting up offices in Sunnyvale, Calif.  \"We took about three weeks to do an analysis of the formidable task of competing head-on with IBM,\" Dr. Amdahl said in a 2007 interview with Solid-State Circuits Society News.  His idea was to build machines compatible with hardware and software for the System/370, the successor to the System/360. He pointedly named it the 470 series, and in 1975 his company shipped the first of the machines. It proved faster and less expensive than IBM's comparable computers.  By purchasing an Amdahl computer and so-called plug-compatible peripheral devices from third-party manufacturers, customers could now run System/370 programs without buying IBM hardware.  The Amdahl Corporation was not the first to make IBM-compatible computers, but it managed to compete successfully against IBM where large companies like RCA and General Electric had failed.  Amdahl also benefited from antitrust settlements between IBM and the Justice Department, which required IBM to make its mainframe software available to competitors.  By 1979, the year Dr. Amdahl left the company to start another venture, Amdahl had more than $200 million in annual revenue and 22 percent of the mainframe market. (Fujitsu bought the remaining interest in Amdahl in 1997 and made it a wholly owned subsidiary. It has since been dissolved as a stand-alone entity.) Dr. Amdahl also formulated what became known as Amdahl's Law , which is used in parallel computing to predict the theoretical maximum improvement in speed using multiple processors. Gene Myron Amdahl was born on Nov. 16, 1922, in Flandreau, S.D., to parents of Norwegian and Swedish descent. He grew up on a farm and attended a one-room school through the eighth grade. Rural electrification did not reach his town until he was a freshman in high school. After the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, he tried to join the military, but the Selective Service turned him down, deeming his farming skills more important. \"They'd drafted so many of the youth that there weren't enough people to harvest,\" he told an interviewer in 1989. Dr. Amdahl finally joined the service, the Navy, in 1944, and taught radar at naval training centers around the country. In 1946 he married Marian Quissell, who grew up on a farm four miles from his. He received his bachelor's degree in 1948 from South Dakota State University, in Brookings, where his wife worked as a secretary. She had dropped out of Augustana College in Sioux Falls, S.D., after her freshman year to go to work to help pay for her husband's education. In 1952 he received his doctorate in theoretical physics from the University of Wisconsin, Madison. It was in graduate school that his interest in the nascent field of digital computers took root. For his Ph.D. thesis, he drafted a design for what became known as the Wisconsin Integrally Synchronized Computer, or W.I.S.C., an early digital computer. Dr. Amdahl was recruited by IBM after a branch manager in Madison visited him at the university and offered him a job straight out of graduate school. After the success of the System/360 project, Dr. Amdahl moved to California in 1964, weary of what he described as \"the time and politicking demands\" at IBM's corporate headquarters in Armonk, N.Y. In California, he managed an IBM engineering laboratory for six years before starting Amdahl in Sunnyvale, in the heart of Silicon Valley. Dr. Amdahl also encountered both technical and business disappointments. One was Trilogy Systems, which he created after leaving Amdahl in 1979. Trilogy set out to build an integrated chip that would allow mainframe manufacturers to build computers at lower costs. It raised more than$200 million in public and private financing. Yet the chip development ultimately failed.  In 1987 Dr. Amdahl started the Andor Corporation, hoping to compete in the midsize mainframe market using improved manufacturing techniques. But the company encountered production problems, which, together with strong competition, led it to bankruptcy in 1995.  Besides his wife, Dr. Amdahl is survived by two daughters, Delaine Amdahl and Andrea Amdahl; a son, Carlton, who was vice chairman of Trilogy; a brother, Lowell; and five grandchildren.  Despite his business failures later in life, Mr. Amdahl's reputation for technical brilliance endured. Dag Spicer, senior curator at the Computer History Museum in Mountain View, Calif., compared him to two of the industry's greatest computer architects.  \"He's always been right up there with Seymour Cray or Steve Wozniak,\" Mr. Spicer said, \"with real cachet in the technical community.\"    A version of this article appears in print on November 13, 2015, on page B15 of the New York edition with the headline: Gene Amdahl, Known at IBM as the Father of the Mainframe, Dies at 92 . Order Reprints |  Today's Paper | Subscribe      "@en ;
dc:title "Gene Amdahl, Pioneer of Mainframe Computing, Dies at 92 - The New York Times" ;
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tags:computers,
tags:ibm,
tags:series ;
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ns4:image "http://static01.nyt.com/images/2015/11/13/business/13amdahl-obit-1/13amdahl-obit-1-thumbLarge.jpg"@en ;
ns4:title "Gene Amdahl, Pioneer of Mainframe Computing, Dies at 92"@en ;
ns4:url "http://www.nytimes.com/2015/11/13/technology/gene-amdahl-pioneer-of-mainframe-computing-dies-at-92.html"@en .


Perl 6 - YouTube :: 105 6 video report add available
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dc:date "Sat, 14 Nov 2015 17:31:22 GMT"@en ;
dc:description "                      Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 20 20      Add to   Want to watch this again later?  Sign in to add this video to a playlist. Sign in   Share   More     Report   Need to report the video?  Sign in to report inappropriate content. Sign in         45   Like this video?  Sign in to make your opinion count. Sign in   46  0   Don't like this video?  Sign in to make your opinion count. Sign in   1        Rating is available when the video has been rented.    This feature is not available right now. Please try again later.        Published on 9 Nov 2015    Perl 6 Release Talk October 5, 2015     Show more  Show less    "@en ;
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403 Forbidden :: 3 14 nginx forbidden
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dc:title "403 Forbidden" ;
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Yahoo! and FreeBSD :: 731 10 freebsd performance servers support
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dc:description " Yahoo! began life at Stanford University on a DEC Alpha box running OSF and a Sparc 20 running SunOS. They served us well for the first year but we learned that neither system was really designed for handling a large number of HTTP requests. In fact we were unable to find any commercial system that addressed the problems we were facing with scalability. This was one of the unfortunate realities of being at the forefront of Web technology. After leaving Stanford we used a few platforms including SGI IRIX, Linux, and BSDI. Not being impressed with anything we'd used (in terms of performance and stability), we were still looking for alternatives. As Yahoo! grew more popular, both scalability and stability were becoming critical to our success. At the time none of us knew anything about FreeBSD, but after seeing references to it I thought I'd give it a try.  Having spend many frustrating hours trying to install other PC OS's, I was a bit skeptical. I had no intention of spending three days trying to install yet another one. To my surprise I went to the FreeBSD Web site, downloaded the floppy boot image, booted a PC with the created floppy, answered a few install questions, and a few minutes later FreeBSD was installing over the Net. The real surprise was when I cam back later to a fully configured system that actually worked. If anything had gone wrong with that install it would likely been the end of that trial. Luckily for us that it was the easiest and most painless OS installs I had ever experienced.  A couple of days later we added a FreeBSD box to our cluster of Web servers. Not only did it out-perform the rest of our machines, but it was more stable. A few weeks into this experiment and we were sold. Although the   price was certainly attractive, it was the stability, performance, and access to the sourcode that sold us. Ever since then we've used FreeBSD almost exclusively for production as well as our development environment. Early on the two big unknowns were support issues and the future direction of FreeBSD. The support we've received from the core team as well as other users has been excelent. This support along with the source code has allowed us to solve any issues we've had almost immediately. Likewise we were pleasantly surprised with the organization and direction of the FreeBSD project as we learned more about it and the people involved over the last two years.  We started with a single Pentium 100 box running FreeBSD 2.0.5. We eventually migrated the rest of our production servers to FreeBSD and today we have over 50 servers running various versions of 2.1 STABLE. We are in the process of testing 2.2 STABLE and hope to convert during the next 6 months. The machines we use range from a Pentium 100 with 64MB of memory to a PPro200 with 256MB of memory. When additional I/O performance is needed we use ccd with stripping over multiple disks. 100Mbps fast ethernet is used for networking. Overall an extremely cost effective solution.  FreeBSD has been extremely stable for us. We've seen over 180 days of uptime on a machine serving over 4 million HTTP requests per day. Performance has been impressive too. With disk striping using ccd we've been able to serve over 12 million HTTP requests per day on a PPro200 with 128MB of memory. One of the only negative things we've found with FreeBSD has been   the lack of third party software. Fortunately this is changing, but there's still a long way to go. The only way for this to change is for Yahoo! along with other organizations to convince the software vendors that there is a big enough market for their products. One of our big technical challenges is scaling our services in the face of rapid growth. Looking forward we are very interested in using SMP to achieve even better price/performance. FreeBSD on other platforms (e.g. Alpha) is also interesting from the price/performance perspective. We are also looking at FreeBSD to provide other services such as large reliable RAID file servers. Overall we've found FreeBSD to excel in performance, stability, technical support, and of course price. Two years after discovering FreeBSD, we have yet to find a reason why we should switch to anything else.  David Filo,  Co-founder of Yahoo!  Taken from FreeBSD News  Issue 1      "@en ;
dc:title "Yahoo! and FreeBSD" ;
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tags:performance,
tags:servers,
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What Can You Put in a Refrigerator? :: 390 10 refrigerator fits edible salt
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dc:description " What Can You Put in a Refrigerator?  This may sound ridiculous, but I'm serious. The goal is to write a spec for what's allowed to be put into a refrigerator. I intentionally picked something that everyone has lots of experience with. Here's a first attempt:   Anything that (1) fits into a refrigerator and (2) is edible.   #1 is hard to argue with, and the broad stroke of #2 is sensible. Motorcycles and bags of cement are off the list. Hmmm...what about liquids? Can I pour a gallon of orange juice into the refrigerator? All right, time for version 2.0:   Anything that's edible and fits into a refrigerator. Liquids must be in containers.   Hey, what about salt? It fits, is edible, and isn't a liquid, so you're free to pour a container of salt into this fridge. You could say that salt is more of a seasoning than a food, in an attempt to disallow it, but I'll counter with uncooked rice. This could start a long discussion about what kinds of food actually need refrigeration--uncooked rice doesn't, but cooked rice does. Could we save energy in the long haul by blocking things that don't need to be kept cool? That word need complicates things, so let's drop this line of thinking for now.   Anything that's edible and fits into a refrigerator. Items normally stored in containers must be in containers.   How about a penguin? Probably need some kind of clause restricting living creatures. Maybe the edibility requirement covers this, except leopard seals and sea lions eat penguins. No living things across the board is safest way to plug this hole. Wait, do the bacteria in yogurt count as living? This entire edibility issue is troublesome. What about medicine that needs to be kept cool?  Oh no, we've only been thinking about residential uses! A laboratory refrigerator changes everything. Now we've got to consider organs and cultures and chemicals and is it okay to keep iced coffee in there with them. It also never occurred to me until right now that we can't even talk about any of this until we define exactly what the allowed temperature range of a refrigeration appliance is.  In the interest of time, I'll offer this for-experts-only spec for \"What can you put in a refrigerator?\":   Anything that fits into a refrigerator.    permalink  November 12, 2015   "@en ;
dc:title "What Can You Put in a Refrigerator?" ;
tags:associatedTag tags:edible,
tags:fits,
tags:refrigerator,
tags:salt ;
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Microsoft Invented Google Earth in the 90s Then Totally Blew It :: 1803 13 microsoft terraserver barclay images
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dc:date "Sat, 14 Nov 2015 17:31:01 GMT"@en ;
dc:description "    A screengrab of Terraserver from 1999. Image: Tom Barclay  The Earth fit inside a 45-foot by 25-foot Compaq computer in an office building in suburban Seattle. As the East Coast woke up Monday mornings, it would roar to life.  \"The temperature in the room would go up 5 to 6 degrees, things would start banging around,\" Tom Barclay, the man tasked by Microsoft with putting the Earth inside a database, remembers. \"You'd really marvel at it.\"  Terraserver could have, should have been a product that ensured Microsoft would remain the world's most important internet company well into the 21st century. It was the first-ever publicly available interactive satellite map of the world . The world's first-ever terabyte-sized database. In fact, it was the world's largest database for several years, and that Compaq was—physically speaking—the world's largest computer. Terraserver was a functional and popular Google Earth predecessor that launched and worked well before Google even thought of the concept. It let you see your house, from space .  So why aren't we all using Terraserver on our smartphones right now?  Probably for the same reason Microsoft barely put up a fight as Google outpaced it with search, email, browser, and just about every other consumer service. Microsoft, the corporation, didn't seem to care very little about the people who actually used Terraserver, and it didn't care about the vast amount of data about consumers it was gleaning from how they used the service.  \"It was something we did to show off our software could do this, but the company didn't care about the information,\" Barclay told me. \"Google was an information company first. They saw the value of the information.\"  ***     An internal prototype of Terraserver. The final version was more complex. Image: Tom Barclay  From the outset, the plan was to make a database. Microsoft didn't really care what information it contained, it just had to be big. The biggest in the world, something that would test the scalability of Microsoft's SQL database products.  \"We had been asked to work on a very large database, to test this next-generation database product,\" Barclay told me. \"It turns out that finding both an interesting and real terabyte of data that wasn't encumbered in some way, that we had the permission to [distribute legally], was a challenging problem.\"  According to a USA Today article from June 22, 1998, the initial plan with Terraserver was to list every single transaction in the history of the New York Stock Exchange online and make it searchable. But that was only a half terabyte of data. Microsoft needed something larger.  In 1997, the United States Geological Survey was in the process of uploading greyscale satellite photos and other aerial images from its archives onto the internet. Hedy Rossmeisl of the USGS met with famed Microsoft computer scientist Jim Gray, and they started brainstorming. Wouldn't it be interesting, and perhaps useful, they thought, if someone put searchable satellite images on the internet?     Terraserver as it looked on launch day. Image: Tom Barclay  The timing was more-or-less perfect. The Cold War was over, which allowed spy satellite imagery to be declassified, no one was worried about terrorism in a pre-9/11 world, and, well, the average person was beginning to get the internet.  \"We had imagery from maybe half of the country done digitally and we had some capabilities to deliver them, but not in a fast, accessible way,\" Rossmeisl told me. \"I thought getting the data on the web was really important, and I wanted to help make it happen.\"  The images, along with some from recently declassified Russian military photos, totaled just over 2.3 terabytes. The idea for Terraserver was born.  Gray put Barclay, who Rossmeisl called \"the brains of the project\" in charge, and he got to coding. He was a database guy—Terraserver was the first website he'd ever made, and it was the first project he'd ever tried that had anything to do with mapping, which proved to be quite a challenge. Barclay quickly ran into an age-old cartography problem.  \"It turns out that 'round Earth, flat monitor' is an enormous pain in the neck,\" Barclay said.     Image: Strebe/Wikimedia Commons   He decided that using a standard Mercator map projection, which is what you see in the image above, wouldn't work because it distorts the sizes of land masses as you move north and south on the projection. After trying a few things, Barclay came up with the idea of creating \"mosaic\" images that would be automatically generate based on where you're clicking on the map. Basically, the images given to Microsoft by USGS were stitched together but were then chopped into smaller images that could recenter themselves on cue.        A whitepaper published in 2000 explains how Barclay solved the projection issue. Images: Microsoft  \"Originally, we hadn't done this. The very first demo we did, I chopped Bill Gates's house in half, which was not very good,\" he said. \"We ended up with a progressive display that allowed people to drag and center the screen where they wanted it, and we computed zoomed out and zoomed in views.\"  These innovations proved to be revolutionary, and the \"mosaic\" strategy is now the \"underpinning of Google Earth and Google Maps,\" Barclay said.  \"I don't want to break my arm patting my back, but it's amazing how similar the current technologies are to what we did in 1998,\" he added. With the mapping problem solved, Terraserver went live, and the real fun began.  ***     Image: Microsoft  I was 10 years old when Terraserver launched, and if I used it, I don't remember. Unfortunately, there's no way of using it today. Terraserver went offline in 2007, and Barclay spent most of his time working on Bing Maps. Microsoft periodically revived Terraserver from time to time even after 2007, but it's offline forever now. Barclay attempted to bring it back on a separate server for the purposes of this article, but said that the project proved too time consuming.  So while I don't remember Terraserver, it does seem like it made quite a splash when it launched. In addition to the USA Today article (more of a blurb, really), Terraserver also scored early stories from the New York Times and Newsweek , which worried about the system's potential privacy-invading potential (headline: \" Surveillance in the sky \").     Terraserver's initial specifications. Image: Microsoft  Microsoft held a launch event in New York City that Bill Gates attended. On the first day, 8 million people accessed the site, \"millions more were rejected,\" according to a white paper published in 2000 . By the end of the week, it was getting 30 million hits a day. Ultimately, the site settled down and served roughly 7 million people every day. It was more successful than anyone at Microsoft ever anticipated.  And that brings us to the dumbfounding thing about Terraserver, and about Microsoft. The reason, really, why I'm writing this article. In reading the white paper, it's astounding to see just how much information about general web behavior Microsoft was able to glean from the project, and it's astounding to see how it essentially blew it by looking at Terraserver as a novelty project rather than a potentially world-changing one.  Microsoft learned, maybe even before Google, that most search is local. If Terraserver didn't have images for people's hometowns, they got angry.     Image: Microsoft  \"In the first year, I got 20,000 emails, and the vast majority of them said one of two things,\" Barclay said. \"It was either 'I love Terraserver, I saw my house' or 'I hate Terraserver, I didn't see my house' We learned that 85 percent of all geospacial queries are local. They're looking for local search—they want to find whatever dry cleaner is around the corner, or where they could get fast food.\"   The entirety of the New York Times article about Terraserver's launch focuses on its utility as a database and all but ignores the possibility that it could serve as a method of collecting information about user habits.  \"The project not only marks the creation of one whopper of a digital scrapbook, it also says something very big about Microsoft's effort to enter the database business, using as an opener a venture that can capture the public imagination,\" the Times wrote. \"Microsoft's strategy is to use Terraserver to prove that its software and operating system are suited to massive databases.\"     Image: Microsoft  It wasn't just that basic information, however. Microsoft also gleaned that \"the internet is busiest on Mondays and Tuesdays\" and that there was a \"steady slide [in volume] from Wednesday through Friday.\" Saturdays and Sundays were half as busy as Mondays were. The 45-foot by 25-foot Compaq computer that stored the images would roar to life on Monday mornings as the East Coast woke up.  \"The temperature in the room would go up 5 to 6 degrees around 9:30 AM on the East Coast, things would start banging around,\" Barclay said. \"By 8 PM pacific time, you didn't have any traffic, because we didn't have any imagery in the Pacific Ocean.\"  None of this information was used by Microsoft, except as a way to determine when to perform maintenance on its servers or when to staff the server rooms. The only revenue Microsoft made directly off of Terraserver was on the sale of some of the satellite images, which you could buy and have mailed to your house for $9.95. \"In the science community, this technology took off, but as a business I could never get anyone at Microsoft to latch onto it,\" Barclay said. \"There's definitely a little bit of frustration there.\" *** It's easy to look at Terraserver as a missed opportunity for Microsoft to dominate the next era of computing, and it's hard to say why, exactly, the company decided to stop pouring resources into it. Current Microsoft representative declined to be interviewed for this article, and Jim Gray, Barclay's boss, was lost at sea in 2007 . It may be as simple as Barclay suggested: Microsoft didn't see itself as an information company, and the media was skeptical of its intentions had it decided to become one. In addition to the Newsweek article, the Chicago Sun Times ran an opinion piece in 2000 that questioned the company's motives with Terraserver. \"Some people are paranoid enough about Microsoft,\" Andy Ihnatko wrote in an article I accessed using LexisNexis. \"How would these people react to discovering a Microsoft web server with an aerial photo of their house that's so good it shows the kiddie pool in the backyard?\" Other groups weren't as skittish. The most notable was Keyhole , which launched \"Earth Viewer\" in 2003 and used Terraserver as some of the underpinning of their technology. It sold the license to its Earth Viewer software for upwards of$600 annually to businesses and charged consumers \$79 annually for a stripped down version of it. Google bought Keyhole in 2004 , rebranded Earth Viewer as Google Earth in 2005 and, well, you know the rest of the story.  "@en ;
dc:title "Microsoft Invented Google Earth in the 90s Then Totally Blew It | Motherboard" ;
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Meta
Technical
Data
“MINKIZ” by
Higgins and Macfarlane
31 West Street
Axbridge
Somerset
BS26 2AA

+44-(0)1934-732723
VAT Reg: GB701276958

Contains semantic web technology, may also contain nuts.

NB: in development, structure and/or content may change without warning; uses RDFLib5.0.0-dev, Pyramid1.5dev & Python3.5.0+